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SCIENCE CHINA Chemistry, Volume 61 , Issue 10 : 1278-1284(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11426-018-9250-6

Supersaturation controlled growth of MAFAPbI3 perovskite film for high efficiency solar cells

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  • ReceivedFeb 8, 2018
  • AcceptedMar 22, 2018
  • PublishedJun 19, 2018

Abstract

Controlling the nucleation and growth of organic-inorganic hybrids perovskite is of key importance to improve the morphology and crystallinity of perovskite films. However, the growth mechanism of perovskite films based on classical crystallization theory is not fully understood. Here, we develop a supersaturation controlled strategy (SCS) to balance the nucleation and crystal growth speeds. By this strategy, we are able to find an ideal supersaturation region to realize a balance of nucleation and crystal growth, which yields highly crystallized perovskite films with micrometer-scale grains. Besides, we provide a thoughtful analysis of nucleation and growth based on the fabrication of the perovskite films. As a result, the highest photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 19.70% and 20.31% are obtained for the planar and the meso-superstructured devices, respectively. This strategy sheds some light for understanding the film growth mechanism of high quality perovskite film, and it provides a facile strategy to fabricate high efficiency perovskite solar cells.


Funded by

the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFA0204000)

National Natural Science Foundation of China(U1632118,21571129)

Shanghai Tech Start-Up Funding

1000 Young Talent program

and Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality(16JC1402100,16520720700)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFA0204000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1632118, 21571129), Shanghai Tech Start-Up Funding, 1000 Young Talent program, and Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (16JC1402100, 16520720700).


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Supplement

The supporting information is available online at http://chem.scichina.com and http://link.springer.com/journal/11426. The supporting materials are published as submitted, without typesetting or editing. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and content remains entirely with the authors.


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  • Figure 1

    (a) Schematic illustration of the fabrication procedure including spin-coating, solvent-evaporating, and post-annealing steps. (b, c) Top view and (d, e) cross-section SEM images of the perovskite films under the conventional strategy (CS) and the supersaturation controlled strategy (SCS), respectively (color online).

  • Figure 2

    Top view SEM images of the perovskite films prepared by the SCS method with different solvent evaporation times of (a) 0 min (SCS-0), (b) 2 min (SCS-2), (c) 4 min (SCS-4), (d) 6 min (SCS-6), (e) 8 min (SCS-8) and (f) 10 min (SCS-10).

  • Figure 3

    (a) UV-Vis absorption spectra of CS and SCS samples. The SCS samples were prepared by the SCS with different solvent evaporation times of 2 min (SCS-2), 4 min (SCS-4), 6 min (SCS-6) and 8 min (SCS-8). (b) X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles of perovskite film crafed by the SCS and the CS. (c) PL lifetime curves of perovskite films crafed by the SCS and the CS at the based of glass. (d) Steady-state PL spectra of perovskite films fabricated by the SCS and the CS at the based of SnO2 (color online).

  • Figure 4

    (a) Schematic illustration of device configuration (ITO/SnO2/(FAPbI3)0.85(MAPbBr3)0.15/Spero-OMeTAD/Au). (b) Current density voltage (J-V) curves obtained under the AM 1.5 G full-sun illumination for the best device based on SnO2 prepared by the CS and the SCS, respectively. (c) The reproducibility of the devices prepared by the SCS and the CS. (d) EQE spectrum of the representative device and its integrated current density. (e) Current density voltage (J-V) curves obtained under the AM 1.5 G full-sun illumination for the best device prepared by the SCS, based on the meso-superstructure: Au/Spiro-OMeTAD/perovskite/mesoporous TiO2/compact TiO2/FTO. (f) Photocurrent density and power conversion efficiency of the planar perovskite device measured as a function of time at a constant forward bias of 0.88 V (color online).

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