A high-energy-density sodium-ion full battery based on tin anode

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  • ReceivedOct 31, 2018
  • AcceptedJan 21, 2019
  • PublishedFeb 28, 2019


Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as promising candidates for large-scale energy storage, owing to the high abundance and low cost of sodium (Na) resources. However, the development of full SIB has been hindered by low energy density because of the sluggish kinetics of large Na+. Here, we report a full SIB with commercial tin (Sn) anode, cross-linked Na3V2(PO4)3/carbon nanotubes composites (NVP-CNT) cathode, and ether-based electrolyte. Sn is capable of delivering high reversible capacity via formation of Na15Sn4 and stable solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) in initial cycles. Meanwhile, the NASICON-type NVP enables ultrafast and stable Na+ intercalation/extraction, and the incorporation of CNT can improve its electrical conductivity. The assembled full SIB delivers high output voltage of ~3.2 V, high energy density of 253.4 W h kg−1 at 1600 W kg−1 based on total mass of both cathode and anode, and remarkable capacity retention of 96.1% after 180 cycles. These merit construction of high-energy full SIBs and will promote the development of SIBs.

Funded by

the Ministry of Science and Technology of China(2017YFA0206700)

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21822506,51671107)


This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2017YFA0206700), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21822506, 51671107).

Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


The supporting information is available online at http://chem.scichina.com and http://link.springer.com/journal/11426. The supporting materials are published as submitted, without typesetting or editing. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and content remains entirely with the authors.


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  • Figure 1

    Structure and morphology of Sn and NVP-CNT. XRD patterns of (a) Sn and (c) NVP-CNT; SEM images of (b) Sn and (d) NVP-CNT (color online).

  • Figure 2

    Schematic of full SIB of Sn//NVP-CNT and electrochemical performance of half cells of Na//Sn and Na//NVP-CNT. (a) Schematic illustration of the full SIB; (b) CV profiles at scanning rate of 0.1 mV s−1 of Sn (black, at 0.01–1.0 V), NVP-CNT (red, at 2.8–3.8 V), and the full SIB (blue, at 2.5–3.8 V); rate capability of (c) Sn and (d) NVP-CNT (color online).

  • Figure 3

    Electrochemical performance of full SIB of Sn//NVP-CNT. (a) Selected charge-discharge curves at 400 mA g−1; (b) cyclic performance and (c) rate capability for the full SIB; (d) Ragone plot of the full SIB and reported full batteries based on total mass of anode and cathode (color online).

  • Figure 4

    Ex-situ XRD patterns of (a) Sn anode and (c) NVP-CNT cathode at different charge and discharge states labeled in (b); (b) charge-discharge profile of the second cycle at 50 mA g−1; (d–f) HRTEM of Sn anode at different states of pristine, charged to 3.8 V, and discharged to 2.5 V in the second cycle; (g–i) HRTEM of NVP-CNT cathode at the three aforementioned states (color online).

  • Figure 5

    Diffusion coefficients calculated from the GITT potential profiles for half batteries of (a) Na//Sn and (c) Na//NVP-CNT; Arrhenius plots of logi0 versus 1/T for the electrodes of (b) Sn and (d) NVP-CNT at different voltages (color online).

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