SCIENCE CHINA Chemistry, Volume 62 , Issue 8 : 1044-1050(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11426-019-9486-0

Defect passivation of CsPbI2Br perovskites through Zn(II) doping: toward efficient and stable solar cells

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  • ReceivedMar 23, 2019
  • AcceptedApr 25, 2019
  • PublishedJun 5, 2019


Defect passivation is an important strategy to achieve perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) with enhanced power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) and improved stability because the trap states induced by defects in the interfaces and grain boundaries of perovskites are harmful to both large open circuit voltage and high photocurrent of devices. Here, zinc cations (Zn2+) were used as a dopant to passivate defects of the CsPbI2Br perovskite leading to Zn2+-doped CsPbI2Br film with fewer trap states, improved charge transportation, and enhanced light-harvesting ability. Thus, the best-performance PVSC based on CsPbI2Br with the optimal Zn2+ doping shows a higher PCE of 12.16% with a larger open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 1.236 V, an improved short-circuit current (JSC) of 15.61 mA cm−2 in comparison with the control device based on the pure CsPbI2Br which exhibits a PCE of 10.21% with a VOC of 1.123 V, a JSC of 13.27 mA cm−2. Time-resolved photoluminescence results show that the Zn2+ doping leads to perovskite film with extended photoluminescence lifetime which means a longer diffusion length and subsequently enhanced photocurrent and open circuit voltage. This work provides a simple strategy to boost the performance of PVSCs through Zn2+ doping.

Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(U1605241)

the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences


and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDB20030300)


and EDX elemental mapping measurements(ShanghaiTech,University)


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1605241), the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, CAS (QYZDB-SSW-SLH032), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB20030300). We thank Prof. Zhijun Ning and Mr. Xianyuan Jiang for their help with SEM, UPS, and EDX elemental mapping measurements (ShanghaiTech University).

Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


The supporting information is available online at http://chem.scichina.com and http://link.springer.com/journal/11426. The supporting materials are published as submitted, without typesetting or editing. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and content remains entirely with the authors.


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  • Figure 1

    (a) XRD patterns; (b) the Gaussian fitting curves for (100) peaks of the CsPbI2Br films with Zn-x%; (c, d) top-view SEM images of the CsPbI2Br films with (c) Zn-0%, (d) Zn-7.5% (color online).

  • Figure 2

    EDX elemental mapping of the CsPbI2Br film with Zn-7.5%. Scale bar: 1 μm (color online).

  • Figure 3

    XPS spectra of the CsPbI2Br films with Zn-x% incorporation. (a) Cs 3d; (b) Pb 4f; (c) I 3d; (d) Br 3d (color online).

  • Figure 4

    (a) Absorption and (b) steady-state PL spectra; (c) TRPL spectra of the CsPbI2Br films with Zn-x%; UPS spectra for (d) valence band edge and (e) secondary electron cutoff edge of the CsPbI2Br films with Zn-x%; (f) energy level diagram of ITO, SnO2, the CsPbI2Br films with Zn-x%, Spiro-OMeTAD, MoO3 and Ag (color online).

  • Figure 5

    (a) The schematic structure of the CsPbI2Br PVSCs; (b) cross-section SEM image of the perovskite solar cells; (c) current-voltage characteristic and (d) EQE spectra and the corresponding integrated JSC curves of the champion PVSCs; (e) PCE statistical distribution histograms of PVSCs based on pure CsPbI2Br; (f) PCE statistical distribution histograms of PVSCs based on CsPbI2Br with Zn-7.5% (color online).

  • Table 1   Detailed photovoltaic properties of the PVSCs based on CsPbIBr with Zn-%

    Doping ratio

    VOC (V)

    JSC(mA cm−2)


    PCE (%) a)





    10.21 (9.31±0.63)





    10.62 (9.79±0.46)





    11.10 (10.56±0.56)





    12.16 (11.78±0.22)





    10.26 (10.02±0.24)

    In parentheses are average values based on more than 8 devices.

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