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SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences, Volume 60, Issue 1: 46-56(2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-016-0322-x

The size matters: regulation of lipid storage by lipid droplet dynamics

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  • ReceivedOct 23, 2016
  • AcceptedOct 28, 2016
  • PublishedDec 5, 2016

Abstract

Adequate energy storage is essential for sustaining healthy life. Lipid droplet (LD) is the subcellular organelle that stores energy in the form of neutral lipids and releases fatty acids under energy deficient conditions. Energy storage capacity of LDs is primarily dependent on the sizes of LDs. Enlargement and growth of LDs is controlled by two molecular pathways: neutral lipid synthesis and atypical LD fusion. Shrinkage of LDs is mediated by the degradation of neutral lipids under energy demanding conditions and is controlled by neutral cytosolic lipases and lysosomal acidic lipases. In this review, we summarize recent progress regarding the regulatory pathways and molecular mechanisms that control the sizes and the energy storage capacity of LDs.


Funded by

National Natural Science Foundation of China(31420040)

National Basic Research Program(2013CB530602 to Peng Li)

China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2015M581079 to Jinhai Yu)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31420040, 31321003 to Peng Li, 31501089 to Jinhai Yu), the National Basic Research Program (2013CB530602 to Peng Li), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M581079 to Jinhai Yu).


Open access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.


Interest statement

The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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  • Figure 1

    The structure and function of LDs. LD is composed of a neutral lipid core, a monolayer phospholipid membrane and its associated surface proteins. The major components of neutral lipids in mammalian LD are triacylglycerols (TAGs) and sterol esters (SEs). Dysregulated LD homeostasis is closely connected to many pathological conditions and the development of various diseases reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  • Figure 2

    Two major mechanisms of LD growth. A, Many enzymes are localized to LD surface and TAG is synthesized locally to promoted LD growth. B, Atypical fusion of LDs mediated by CIDE proteins that promote LD growth and lipid storage. FFA, free fatty acid; LPA, lyso-phosphatidic acid; PA, phosphatidic acid; DAG, diacylglycerol; TAG, triacylglycerol.

  • Figure 3

    Model of CIDE-mediated atypical fusion of LD that includes LD movement; enrichment of CIDEs at LD contact site (LDCS) and stabilization of CIDE protein complex by Rab8a; formation of fusion pore that is stabilized by Plin1, and initiation of lipid transfer from smaller to larger LDs that is dependent on internal pressure and other unknown factors; and the final completion of LD fusion and redistribution or recycling of CIDE protein complex.

  • Figure 4

    The regulation of LD degradation by cytosolic lipases under basal (A), hormone or starvation conditions (B) or LD degradation by lysosomal lipases under starvation condition (C). CA, catecholamine; β-AR, β-adrenergic receptor; Gs, stimulative regulative G-protein.

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