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great practices and techniques have been brought in by Chen in the area of liver cancer. With around 740,000 new cases diagnosed each year in China, 70% of the tumors in patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma are categorized as either large (5 to 10 cm in diameter) or huge (larger than 10 cm in diameter), which is commonly believed unable to be removed in the medical community. However, in the 1980s, Chen boldly made the hypothesis that though it remained difficult for the operation in clinical practice, the procedure was feasible in theory. To turn the theory into reality, the principal difficulty in front of Chen is intraoperative massive haemorrhage. Three techniques to control bleeding during liver resection was invented: tying up of inflow and outflow vessels without dissecting the hilus of the liver; occlusion of the liver’s portal triad and infrahepatic inferior vena cava; and implementation of the liver double-hanging manoeuvre through the retrohepatic avascular tunnel on the right side of the inferior vena cava. By employing the above techniques, intraoperative blood loss drastically reduces to around 250 mL from 2000 mL, and accordingly, the mortality rate resulting from the blood loss sharply drops from 10% to 0.7%.
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