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SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences, Volume 60, Issue 5: 468-475(2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-017-9057-2

CRISPR/Cas9 system: a powerful technology for in vivo and ex vivo gene therapy

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  • ReceivedNov 29, 2016
  • AcceptedFeb 16, 2017
  • PublishedApr 20, 2017

Abstract

CRISPR/Cas9 is a versatile genome-editing tool which is widely used for modifying the genome of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms for basic research and applications. An increasing number of reports have demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing is a powerful technology for gene therapy. Here, we review the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene therapy in animal models via different strategies and discuss the challenges as well as future prospects.


Funded by

National Natural Science Foundation of China(31371455,31171318 to Dali Li,81330049 to Mingyao Liu)

Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality(14140900300 to Dali Li)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31371455, 31171318 to Dali Li, 81330049 to Mingyao Liu), the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (14140900300 to Dali Li).


Interest statement

The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest.


References

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  • Figure 1

    Schematic diagram of current gene therapy strategies. A, In vivo. B, Ex vivo.

  • Table 1   Disease models tested by CRISPR/Cas9 mediated and gene therapy

    Disease

    Species

    Delivery systems

    Delivery methods

    Therapeutic efficiency

    Off-target

    Reference

    Hereditary

    tyrosinemia type I

    Fah−/− mice

    pX330 vector (co-expressing one sgRNA and SpCas9), ssDNA oligo

    HDI

    0.4%

    <0.3%

    (Yin et al., 2014)

    Coronary heart disease

    (CHD)

    mice

    Adenoviruses (co-expressing Cas9 and a guide RNA)

    HDI

    35%–40%

    No

    (Ding et al., 2014)

    Hereditary

    tyrosinemia type I

    Fah−/− mice

    delivery of Cas9 mRNA by lipid

    nanoparticles and sgRNA/HDR template by AAV

    SD

    >6%

    <0.3%

    (Yin et al., 2016)

    Hyperammonemia

    Newborn mice

    two AAVs, one expressing SaCas9 and the other expressing a guide RNA and the donor DNA

    IVI

    10%

    No

    (Yang et al., 2016)

    DMD

    mdx mice

    two AAVs, one expressing SaCas9 and the other expressing two guide RNA

    IM

    ~2%

    <1%

    (Nelson et al., 2016)

    DMD

    Newborn mdx mice

    two AAVs, one expressing SpCas9 and the other expressing a guide RNA

    IP

    IM

    RO

    1.8%±1.2%,

    25.5%±2.9%,

    6.1%±3.2%

    No

    (Long et al., 2016)

    DMD

    mdx mice

    two AAVs, one expressing SaCas9 and the other expressing two guide RNA

    IM

    39% ±1.8%

    Not detected

    (Tabebordbar et al., 2016)

    Retinal dystrophy

    Transgenic S334ter rats

    Px330 (co-expresses one sgRNA and SpCas9)

    USI followed by ET

    100%

    No

    (Bakondi et al., 2016)

    hemophilia B

    F9 mutant mice

    px458 (co-expresses one sgRNA and SpCas9), donor: ssODN or plasmid

    HDI

    0.56%

    Not detected

    (Guan et al., 2016)

    PRKAG2 cardiac syndrome

    H530R PRKAG2 transgenic and knock-in mice,

    two AAV9s, one expressing SpCas9 and the other expressing one guide RNA

    HDI or IV

    20%–40%

    0.09%–0.48%

    (Xie et al., 2016)

    AMD

    AMD mice

    Cas9

    Ribonucleoproteins and sgRNA

    SRI

    58%±4%

    No

    (Kim et al., 2017)

    Hereditary

    tyrosinemia type I

    Fah−/− mice

    Px330 (co-expresses one sgRNA and SpCas9)

    HDI

    99%

    <2.82

    (Pankowicz et al., 2016)

    Retinitis pigmentosa

    RCS rat

    two AAVs, one expressing spCas9 and the other expressing a guide RNA and HITI cassette

    SRI

    4.5%

    No

    (Suzuki et al., 2016)

    Hemophilia A

    F8 deficient hemophilia A mice

    Endothelial cells differentiated from corrected iPSCs

    SCI

    ~30%

    No

    (Park et al., 2015)

    Sickle cell disease

    NSG mice

    pools of WT CD34+

    HSPCs edited by CRISPR/Cas9

    XG

    37%±21%

    No

    (DeWitt et al., 2016)

    β-haemoglobinopathies

    NSG mice

    GFP+ and tNGFR+ HSCs edited by CRISPR/Cas9

    XG

    49% (GFP+ HSCs);

    84% (tNGFR+ HSCs)

    Not detected

    (Dever et al., 2016)

    AMD, age-related macular degeneration; NSG, NOD/SCID/IL-2rgnull; WT, wild type; RCS, royal college of surgeons; HITI, homology-independent targeted integration; HDI, hydrodynamic injection; IVI, intravenous injection; SD, systemic delivery; IM, intra-muscular; IP, intra-peritoneal; RO, retro-orbital; USI, unilateral subretinal injection; ET, electroporation; IV, intraventricular; SRI, subretinal injection; AAV, adeno-associated viral; SCI, subcutaneous injection; XG, xenografting; HSPCs, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

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