SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences, Volume 61, Issue 5: 504-514(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-018-9281-6

Ideal cardiovascular health and incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease among Chinese adults: the China-PAR project

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  • ReceivedJan 2, 2018
  • AcceptedFeb 26, 2018
  • PublishedMar 19, 2018


Existing evidence on the relationship between cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics and cardiovascular disease (CVD) was primarily derived from western populations. We aimed to evaluate the benefits of ideal CVH metrics on preventing incident atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) in Chinese population. This study was conducted among 93,987 adults from the China-PAR project (Prediction for ASCVD Risk in China) who were followed up until 2015. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CVH metrics for the risk of ASCVD, including coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and ASCVD death. We further estimated the population-attributable risk percentage (PAR%) of these metrics in relation to each outcome. We observed gradient inverse associations between the number of ideal CVH metrics and ASCVD incidence. Compared with participants having ≤2 ideal CVH metrics, the multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of ASCVD for those with 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 ideal CVH metrics were 0.83 (0.74–0.93), 0.66 (0.59–0.74), 0.55 (0.48–0.61), 0.44 (0.38–0.50) and 0.24 (0.18–0.31), respectively (P for trend <0.0001). Approximately 62.1% of total ASCVD, 38.7% of CHD, 66.4% of stroke, and 60.5% of ASCVD death were attributable to not achieving all the seven ideal CVH metrics. After adjusting effects of ideal health factors, having four ideal health behaviors could independently bring adults health benefits in preventing 17.4% of ASCVD, 18.0% of CHD, 16.7% of stroke, and 10.1% of ASCVD death. Among all the seven CVH metrics, to keep with ideal blood pressure (BP) implied the largest public health gains against various ASCVD events (PAR% between 33.0% and 47.2%), while ideal diet was the metric most difficult to be achieved in the long term. Our study indicates that the more ideal CVH metrics adults have, the less ASCVD burden there is in China. Special efforts of health education and behavior modification should be made on keeping ideal BP and dietary habits in general Chinese population to prevent the epidemic of ASCVD.

Funded by

grants from the CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences(2017-12M-1-004)

and National Natural Science Foundation of China(91643208)

Ministry of Science and Technology of China(2017YFC0211700)


The authors thank the staffs and participants of the China-PAR project for their important participation and contribution. This work was supported by grants from the CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (2017-12M-1-004), Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2017YFC0211700), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (91643208).

Interest statement

The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest.



Table S1 Adjusted hazard ratios for the risk of ASCVD events according to the number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics, stratified by cohorts of the China-PAR project

Table S2 Adjusted hazard ratios for the risk of ASCVD events according to the number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics when cases occurring in the first year after follow-up were removed

Table S3 Comparison of baseline characteristics between included individuals and those lost to follow up

Table S4 Definition of ideal cardiovascular health metrics (>20 years of age) in this study

Figure S1 Adjusted hazard ratios for total ASCVD events by the number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics and subgroups of sex, age group, living region, and urbanization.

Figure S2 Adjusted hazard ratios for CHD by the number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics and subgroups of sex, age group, living region, and urbanization.

Figure S3 Adjusted hazard ratios for stroke by the number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics and subgroups of sex, age group, living region, and urbanization.

Figure S4 Adjusted hazard ratios for ASCVD death by the number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics and subgroups of sex, age group, living region, and urbanization.

Figure S5 Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates of ASCVD events according to the number of ideal health behaviors and ideal health factors.

Figure S6 Flowchart of the study.

The supporting information is available online at http://life.scichina.com and https://link.springer.com. The supporting materials are published as submitted, without typesetting or editing. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and content remains entirely with the authors.


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