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SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences, Volume 61, Issue 9: 1011-1023(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-018-9305-7

Mating patterns and pollen dispersal in a Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) clonal seed orchard: a case study

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  • ReceivedFeb 1, 2018
  • AcceptedMar 21, 2018
  • PublishedJun 4, 2018

Abstract

Pollination dynamics highly determines the genetic quality of seed orchard crops. However, there is less research about the effect of mating patterns on seed productivity of orchard crops. So far, clonal seed orchards have been producing genetically improved seedlings used for most Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.) plantations in China. In the present study, a total of 17 highly variable simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used for genotyping a progeny trial population consisting of 647 open-pollinated progenies germinated from seeds which were collected from 63 maternal clones with 140 potential paternal clones in a Japanese larch clonal seed orchard in China. Paternity analysis was used in the present case study in order to evaluate the level of paternal gametic contribution, estimate pollen contamination and selfing rates, and investigate pollination patterns, pollen dispersal patterns and the impact of mating patterns on seed productivity of orchard crops. We observed 93.7% of the success rate of the parental assignment, unequal paternal gametic contribution (0–12.4%) with 6.3% of the progenies derived from pollen contamination or unsampled pollen donors, and absence of evidence for selfing. We also found that pollination rate highly depended on the distance between pollen donors and maternal parents, the majority of the identified crossing (65.7%) occurred between clones within a 150-m radius, and large variations in growth performance existed among the paternal half-siblings. Progeny growth performance (diameter at breast (DBH) and height (HGT)) was measured at Age-20 in order to investigate the impact of mating patterns on timber production of orchard crops. As either the paternal or maternal, two clones (i.e., clones Z38 and Z62) were identified to have produced progenies with higher average stem volume breeding values than that of all of the progenies. Specifically, the genetic gains for volume were 3.53% for the two clones as paternal parents, and 8.26% as the maternal parents at Age-20. Thus, both elite clones were ideal candidates for the construction of next-generation clonal seed orchards due to their synchronous reproductive phenology with greater crossing rate and higher genetic gain. These results improved the pedigree information to provide solid evidence of mating patterns for future design and effective management of seed orchards and for the development of viable long-term breeding strategies for other coniferous species.


Funded by

the Forestry Industry Research Special Funds for Public Welfare Projects(201504104)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Forestry Industry Research Special Funds for Public Welfare Projects (201504104). We gratefully thank Wusheng Liu for his guidance and thorough review of the manuscript.


Interest statement

The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Supplement

SUPPORTING INFORMATION

Supplementary material 1

The supporting information is available online at http://life.scichina.com and https://link.springer.com. The supporting materials are published as submitted, without typesetting or editing. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and content remains entirely with the authors.


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  • Figure 1

    Distribution of paternal contributions of the 108 identified paternal clones in the Japanese larch clonal seed orchard.

  • Figure 2

    Relationship between cumulative number of paternal clones (%) and cumulative paternal contribution (%) in the Japanese larch clonal seed orchard. Numbers of paternal clones were cumulated sequentially from clones with the highest contribution.

  • Figure 3

    Distribution of the paternal parents of the 34 progenies of the maternal clone Z55, which was located in the center of the clonal seed orchard and contained the largest number of progenies among the 63 maternal clones. The paternity analysis of the maternal clone Z55 assigned 33 out of the 34 progenies to 11 paternal clones, i.e., clones Z8, Z10, Z15, Z17, Z22, Z26, Z48, Z50, Z84, Z124 and Z151. Clones Z8, Z10, Z15, Z17 and Z22 were located within the VII block and produced 26 offspring. Clones Z26, Z48, Z50, Z84, Z124 and Z151 were located outside of the VII block with their distance to Clone Z55 being indicated, and produced 7 offspring. Arrows with %, the percentage of progenies derived from pollen contamination. Tree distance=4 m. Red numerical numbers indicate the numbers of offspring.

  • Table 1   Diversity parameters for the 140 Japanese larch parental clones

    Locus

    Ao

    Ho

    He

    F

    PE-1P

    PE-2P

    PE-PP

    PE-Id

    f(null)

    H46

    4

    0.676

    0.602

    –0.1294

    0.180

    0.310

    0.454

    0.755

    –0.064

    H52

    5

    0.338

    0.338

    –0.0052

    0.059

    0.185

    0.317

    0.541

    –0.020

    H140

    14

    0.659

    0.613

    –0.0804

    0.228

    0.413

    0.622

    0.823

    –0.047

    H177

    3

    0.507

    0.482

    –0.0567

    0.115

    0.186

    0.281

    0.618

    –0.028

    H197

    2

    0.400

    0.338

    –0.1879

    0.057

    0.140

    0.224

    0.503

    –0.086

    H217

    3

    0.643

    0.603

    –0.0724

    0.180

    0.318

    0.465

    0.765

    –0.039

    H233

    4

    0.696

    0.594

    –0.1752

    0.180

    0.331

    0.491

    0.773

    –0.089

    H299

    6

    0.779

    0.708

    –0.1032

    0.292

    0.464

    0.647

    0.865

    –0.051

    H339

    4

    0.214

    0.217

    0.0070

    0.023

    0.101

    0.177

    0.366

    0.024

    HL215

    3

    0.529

    0.501

    –0.0612

    0.124

    0.205

    0.311

    0.641

    –0.035

    HL391

    5

    0.223

    0.248

    0.0957

    0.031

    0.119

    0.207

    0.411

    0.064

    Q299

    2

    0.380

    0.382

    0.0022

    0.072

    0.154

    0.241

    0.544

    –0.001

    Q322

    4

    0.488

    0.435

    –0.1286

    0.094

    0.176

    0.272

    0.591

    –0.063

    Q375

    4

    0.410

    0.493

    0.1638

    0.121

    0.249

    0.388

    0.680

    0.097

    Q386

    14

    0.842

    0.828

    –0.0201

    0.500

    0.671

    0.854

    0.952

    –0.014

    Q397

    12

    0.736

    0.808

    0.0863

    0.453

    0.628

    0.814

    0.938

    0.047

    Y27

    8

    0.702

    0.731

    0.0358

    0.313

    0.485

    0.664

    0.878

    –0.013

    Average

    5.7

    0.542

    0.525

    –0.0382

    0.178

    0.302

    0.437

    0.685

    0.017

    Combined

    0.973

    0.999

    0.999

    0.999

  • Table 2   Diversity parameters for the 647 Japanese larch progenies

    Locus

    Ao

    Ho

    He

    F

    f(null)

    H46

    4

    0.636

    0.630

    –0.0107

    –0.0448

    H52

    6

    0.451

    0.421

    –0.0727

    –0.0486

    H140

    14

    0.696

    0.718

    0.0303

    –0.0353

    H177

    2

    0.451

    0.441

    –0.0243

    0.0120

    H197

    3

    0.357

    0.343

    –0.0427

    –0.0215

    H217

    6

    0.612

    0.608

    –0.0063

    –0.0110

    H233

    5

    0.707

    0.658

    –0.0751

    –0.0407

    H299

    7

    0.781

    0.728

    –0.0734

    –0.0377

    H339

    8

    0.397

    0.381

    –0.0407

    –0.0146

    HL215

    8

    0.577

    0.556

    –0.0374

    –0.0002

    HL391

    4

    0.320

    0.295

    –0.0859

    0.0146

    Q299

    3

    0.404

    0.437

    0.0756

    0.0486

    Q322

    4

    0.427

    0.403

    –0.0600

    –0.0185

    Q375

    4

    0.505

    0.486

    –0.0406

    –0.0048

    Q386

    17

    0.860

    0.843

    –0.0202

    –0.0292

    Q397

    14

    0.859

    0.850

    –0.0109

    –0.0391

    Y27

    8

    0.667

    0.676

    0.0127

    0.0065

    Average

    6.9

    0.571

    0.557

    –0.0251

  • Table 3   Paternity analysis for the 647 Japanese larch progenies

    Maternal clone

    Number of progenies

    Number of assigned progenies

    Rate (%)

    Number of assigned paternal clones

    Assigned paternal diversity (%)

    Outcrossing rate (%)

    Z01

    10

    7

    70

    7

    100

    100

    Z02

    10

    9

    90

    6

    66.7

    100

    Z03

    11

    11

    100

    8

    72.7

    100

    Z04

    9

    8

    89

    7

    87.5

    100

    Z05

    10

    9

    90

    8

    88.9

    100

    Z06

    9

    9

    100

    6

    66.7

    100

    Z07

    10

    10

    100

    8

    80

    100

    Z09

    9

    9

    100

    6

    66.7

    100

    Z10

    9

    9

    100

    6

    66.7

    100

    Z11

    10

    9

    90

    6

    66.7

    100

    Z12

    10

    8

    80

    8

    100

    100

    Z13

    10

    9

    90

    9

    100

    100

    Z14

    10

    10

    100

    9

    90

    100

    Z15

    10

    9

    90

    6

    66.7

    100

    Z16

    10

    7

    70

    7

    100

    100

    Z17

    10

    9

    90

    9

    100

    100

    Z18

    10

    9

    90

    6

    66.7

    100

    Z19

    10

    10

    100

    8

    80

    100

    Z20

    9

    9

    100

    6

    66.7

    100

    Z21

    10

    9

    90

    9

    100

    100

    Z22

    10

    10

    100

    6

    60

    100

    Z23

    10

    8

    80

    7

    87.5

    100

    Z24

    9

    9

    100

    8

    88.9

    100

    Z25

    9

    8

    88.9

    6

    75

    100

    Z26

    8

    8

    100

    7

    87.5

    100

    Z27

    11

    11

    100

    9

    81.8

    100

    Z28

    10

    10

    100

    10

    100

    100

    Z29

    10

    7

    70

    6

    85.7

    100

    Z30

    8

    8

    100

    7

    87.5

    100

    Z31

    11

    10

    90.9

    9

    90

    100

    Z32

    10

    10

    100

    8

    80

    100

    Z33

    10

    10

    100

    7

    70

    100

    Z34

    10

    10

    100

    8

    80

    100

    Z35

    10

    10

    100

    9

    90

    100

    Z36

    11

    11

    100

    9

    81.8

    100

    Z37

    8

    8

    100

    8

    100

    100

    Z38

    11

    11

    100

    3

    27.3

    100

    Z39

    10

    8

    80

    8

    100

    100

    Z40

    10

    10

    100

    9

    90

    100

    Z41

    10

    10

    100

    8

    80

    100

    Z42

    10

    9

    90

    5

    55.6

    100

    Z43

    10

    9

    90

    7

    77.8

    100

    Z44

    10

    10

    100

    6

    60

    100

    Z45

    10

    10

    100

    9

    90

    100

    Z46

    11

    10

    91

    7

    70

    100

    Z47

    9

    9

    100

    9

    100

    100

    Z49

    10

    9

    90

    7

    77.8

    100

    Z50

    10

    10

    100

    5

    50

    100

    Z52

    10

    9

    90

    7

    77.8

    100

    Z53

    11

    11

    100

    8

    72.7

    100

    Z54

    9

    8

    88.9

    5

    62.5

    100

    Z55

    34

    33

    97.1

    16

    48.5

    100

    Z56

    11

    10

    91

    9

    90

    100

    Z57

    10

    9

    90

    9

    100

    100

    Z58

    10

    10

    100

    8

    80

    100

    Z59

    10

    9

    90

    7

    77.8

    100

    Z60

    11

    11

    100

    8

    72.8

    100

    Z62

    9

    9

    100

    8

    88.9

    100

    Z63

    9

    8

    88.9

    7

    87.5

    100

    Z64

    11

    8

    72.7

    6

    75

    100

    Z65

    10

    10

    100

    9

    90

    100

    Z66

    10

    9

    90

    8

    88.9

    100

    Z67

    10

    10

    100

    7

    70

    100

    Total

    647

    606

    108

    Rate=Number of assigned progenies/Number of progenies; Assigned paternal diversity=Number of assigned paternal clones/Number of assigned progenies.

  • Table 4   Differences in average pollination distance among maternal clones

    Maternal clone

    Number of assignedpaternal clones

    Mean

    Std. error

    Amplitude

    CV (%)

    Z01

    7

    214.71

    210.65

    27.00–530.00

    87.15

    Z02

    6

    147.33

    164.33

    27.00–514.00

    115.15

    Z03

    8

    227.82

    109.57

    18.00–346.00

    48.10

    Z04

    7

    259.00

    133.79

    113.00–418.00

    51.66

    Z05

    8

    131.00

    69.42

    24.00–212.00

    52.99

    Z06

    6

    291.56

    105.53

    50.00–372.00

    36.19

    Z07

    8

    98.70

    122.86

    18.00–343.00

    124.48

    Z09

    6

    76.44

    80.21

    4.00–208.00

    104.93

    Z10

    6

    75.33

    62.62

    20.00–209.00

    83.12

    Z11

    6

    58.11

    17.58

    28.00–84.00

    30.25

    Z12

    8

    54.25

    63.82

    8.00–206.00

    117.63

    Z13

    9

    88.22

    90.50

    4.00–252.00

    102.58

    Z14

    9

    141.20

    103.17

    16.00–300.00

    73.07

    Z15

    6

    74.78

    98.33

    8.00–285.00

    131.49

    Z16

    7

    32.00

    30.81

    8.00–100.00

    96.29

    Z17

    9

    128.22

    77.80

    60.00–278.00

    60.68

    Z18

    6

    107.67

    186.27

    4.00–574.00

    173.01

    Z19

    8

    81.00

    77.94

    16.00–230.00

    96.22

    Z20

    6

    85.56

    68.86

    36.00–250.00

    80.49

    Z21

    9

    66.67

    66.27

    8.00–232.00

    99.41

    Z22

    6

    80.40

    41.62

    20.00–138.00

    51.77

    Z23

    7

    48.50

    31.09

    8.00–100.00

    64.10

    Z24

    8

    101.33

    80.34

    4.00–254.00

    79.29

    Z25

    6

    435.00

    264.08

    12.00–680.00

    60.71

    Z26

    7

    387.50

    241.87

    23.00–600.00

    62.42

    Z27

    9

    126.64

    74.71

    28.00–303.00

    58.99

    Z28

    10

    198.80

    80.99

    24.00–324.00

    40.74

    Z29

    6

    86.29

    75.45

    8.00–230.00

    87.44

    Z30

    8

    420.50

    195.36

    100.00–670.00

    46.46

    Z31

    10

    135.30

    94.93

    27.00–295.00

    70.16

    Z32

    10

    191.80

    187.90

    12.00–687.00

    97.96

    Z33

    10

    475.30

    294.24

    50.00–750.00

    61.91

    Z34

    10

    252.70

    83.08

    32.00–330.00

    32.88

    Z35

    10

    92.50

    69.48

    15.00–220.00

    75.11

    Z36

    11

    123.91

    99.95

    8.00–266.00

    80.66

    Z37

    8

    202.13

    89.52

    32.00–300.00

    44.29

    Z38

    11

    36.18

    69.70

    9.00–236.00

    192.65

    Z39

    8

    167.88

    86.38

    24.00–300.00

    51.45

    Z40

    10

    68.90

    66.67

    9.00–234.00

    96.77

    Z41

    10

    206.80

    201.86

    4.00–730.00

    97.61

    Z42

    9

    105.11

    99.17

    9.00–248.00

    94.35

    Z43

    9

    643.78

    74.17

    575.00–736.00

    11.52

    Z44

    10

    337.90

    205.18

    20.00–580.00

    60.72

    Z45

    10

    155.20

    55.14

    70.00–260.00

    35.53

    Z46

    10

    60.60

    41.46

    8.00–104.00

    68.42

    Z47

    9

    25.33

    13.56

    8.00–40.00

    53.54

    Z49

    9

    119.44

    90.20

    15.00–236.00

    75.52

    Z50

    10

    127.40

    208.12

    9.00–648.00

    163.36

    Z52

    9

    99.33

    110.32

    24.00–350.00

    111.06

    Z53

    11

    54.55

    56.97

    8.00–180.00

    104.44

    Z54

    8

    53.50

    33.51

    24.00–102.00

    62.64

    Z55

    33

    66.52

    70.57

    8.00–233.00

    106.10

    Z56

    10

    76.70

    63.73

    8.00–207.00

    83.09

    Z57

    9

    116.89

    121.28

    8.00–400.00

    103.75

    Z58

    10

    114.70

    69.93

    16.00–254.00

    60.97

    Z59

    9

    231.78

    127.40

    96.00–446.00

    54.97

    Z60

    11

    115.36

    100.54

    22.00–400.00

    46.46

    Z62

    8

    127.56

    88.46

    24.00–258.00

    97.96

    Z63

    8

    105.88

    89.87

    12.00–274.00

    61.91

    Z64

    10

    135.13

    119.22

    8.00–328.00

    32.88

    Z65

    9

    81.80

    53.35

    24.00–188.00

    75.11

    Z66

    10

    57.67

    55.10

    8.00–164.00

    80.66

    Z67

    11

    110.60

    93.66

    8.00–296.00

    44.29

    Total

    149.22

    77.90

  • Table 5   The paternal contributions and the average individual volume breeding value of 6 paternal Japanese larch paternal clones at Age-20

    Paternal clone

    Number of ramets

    Number of assigned progenies

    The average individual breeding value of paternal half-siblings

    Z76

    10

    26

    23.46

    Z17

    20

    30

    22.52

    Z34

    63

    13

    7.80

    Z43

    31

    30

    3.80

    Z38

    75

    10

    5.86

    Z62

    52

    6

    3.30

    Average of the 6 clones

    41.83

    19.17

    11.12

    Overall average of the 140 clones

    15.1

    5.61

     

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