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SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences, Volume 63 , Issue 6 : 866-874(2020) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-019-9591-5

Oxidative stress, nutritional antioxidants and beyond

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  • ReceivedAug 6, 2019
  • AcceptedSep 11, 2019
  • PublishedNov 5, 2019

Abstract

Free radical-induced oxidative stress contributes to the development of metabolic syndromes (Mets), including overweight, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory state. Most free radicals are generated from the mitochondrial electron transport chain; under physiological conditions, their levels are maintained by efficient antioxidant systems. A variety of transcription factors have been identified and characterized that control gene expression in response to oxidative stress status. Natural antioxidant compounds have been largely studied for their strong antioxidant capacities. This review discusses the recent progress in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in Mets and highlights the anti-Mets, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effect of polyphenols as potential nutritional therapy.


Funded by

the National Key Research and Development Program(2016YFD0501204,2018YFD0500405)

the Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS(2016326)

the Science and Technology Projects of Hunan Province(2016SK3022,2017RS3058)

Key Project of Research and Development Plan of Hunan Province(2016NK2170)

Science and Technology Projects of Changsha City(kq1801059)

Youth Innovation Team Project of ISA

CAS(2017QNCXTD_ZCS)

the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(KFZD-SW-219)

and the Earmarked Fund for China Agriculture Research System(CARS-35)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (2016YFD0501204, 2018YFD0500405), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (2016326), the Science and Technology Projects of Hunan Province (2016SK3022, 2017RS3058), Key Project of Research and Development Plan of Hunan Province (2016NK2170), Science and Technology Projects of Changsha City (kq1801059), Youth Innovation Team Project of ISA, CAS (2017QNCXTD_ZCS), the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KFZD-SW-219), and the Earmarked Fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-35).


Interest statement

The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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  • Figure 1

    Excess ROS-induced oxidative stress is the primary cause of Mets. Many key protein transporters and the molecules are involved with the development of Mets. Polyphenols have exerted extraordinary function on anti-Mets.

  • Table 1   Table 1 Summary of the effects of dietary polyphenols on metabolism and inflammationa)

    Polyphenols and dosages

    Model used

    Response

    Ref

    Metabolism

    Oxidative stress

    Inflammation

    EGCG (50–100 mg kg–1)

    HFD-fed male C57BL/6J mice

    ¯ Epididymal adipose tissue weight

    ¯ Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL-C

    ­ Serum HDL-C

    (Li F et al., 2018)

    EGCG (25–75 mg kg–1)

    HFD-fed male C57BL/6J mice

    ¯ Body weight

    ¯ Plasma insulin

    ¯ Blood glucose

    ¯ Advanced glycation end products

    ­ GSH/GSSG ratio

    (Sampath et al., 2017)

    EGCG (3.2 g kg–1 diet)

    HFD-fed male C57BL/6J mice

    ­ Insulin sensitivity

    ¯ MCP-1 expression

    (Bose et al., 2008)

    EGCG (25 mg kg–1)

    Tumor-bearing Kunming mice

    ¯ ROS generation

    ­ SOD activity

    (Yao et al., 2017)

    EGCG (5 mg kg–1)

    Partial bladder outlet obstruction Sprague-Dawley rats

    ­ Activity of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT, ¯ serum MDA

    (Gu et al., 2018)

    EGCG (2 g L–1, in drinking water)

    High-fat-and high fructose-fed C57BL/6J mice

    ¯ Body weight and blood insulin

    ¯ TNF-α expression

    (Mi et al., 2017)

    Gallic acid (20 mg kg–1)

    HFD-fed male and female C57BL6/J mic

    ¯ Plasma glucose, insulin and triglycerides

    ¯ Liver pro-inflammatory cytokines (NF-κB and TNF-α)

    (Setayesh et al., 2018)

    Gallic acid (40 mg kg–1)

    Diabetic male albino rats

    ¯ Serum glucose, triglycerides, LDL-C, T-cholesterol and VLDL-C

    ¯ Serum HDL-C

    ¯ Serum TNF-α and

    adiponectin levels

    (Abdel-Moneim et al., 2018)

    Gallic acid (10 mg kg–1)

    HFD-fed male C57BL/6 mice

    ­ Glucose tolerance

    ­ Lipid metabolism

    ¯ Serum triglyceride

    (Bak et al., 2013)

    Gallic acid (20 mg kg–1)

    Type 2 diabetic male Wistar rats

    ­ Glucose uptake

    (Gandhi et al., 2014)

    Gallic acid (46 μg mL–1)

    LPS treated macrophage cell

    line RAW 264

    ¯ ROS generation

    (Tanaka et al., 2018)

    Gallic acid (40 μmol L–1)

    Tert-butyl hydroperoxide treated L02 cells

    ­ GSH-Px level

    ­ GSH/GSSG ratio

    (Feng et al., 2018)

    Gallic acid (100 nmol L–11 μmol L–1)

    Umbilical vein endothelial cell

    ­ GSH activity

    (Goszcz et al., 2017)

    Oleuropein (50 mg kg–1)

    Cholesterol-rich diet-fed male Wistar rats

    ¯ Body weight and adipose tissue mass

    ¯ Liver triglycerides

    ­ Serum adiponectin

    (Hadrich et al., 2016)

    Oleuropein (100 mg kg–1)

    Male SV129 PPARα-null mice

    ¯ Serum cholesterol and triglycerides

    (Malliou et al., 2018)

    Oleuropein (7.4–29.6 μmol L–1)

    H2O2 treated L02 cells

    ­ Protein expression of SOD1, CAT and GSH-Px

    (Shi et al., 2017)

    Oleuropein (60 mg kg–1)

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats

    ­ Plasma GSH/GSSG ratio and SOD activity

    ¯ Plasma MDA expression of Complex II and IV

    ¯ Plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6

    (Sun et al., 2017)

    Resveratrol (200 mg kg–1)

    HFD-fed male Wistar rats

    ¯ Body weight

    ¯ Serum leptin, triglycerides, glucose and insulin

    (Ardid-Ruiz et al., 2018)

    Resveratrol (20 mg kg–1)

    HFD-fed male Wistar rats

    ¯ Body weight and adipose tissue mass

    ¯ Free fatty acids β-oxidation, and triglycerides intestinal absorption

    (Khaleel et al., 2018)

    Resveratrol (25 mg kg–1)

    Li-Pilocarpine treated male Wistar rats

    ¯ Mitochondria 3-NT, 4-HNE

    (Folbergrová et al., 2018)

    Resveratrol (25 mg kg–1)

    Periodontitis models in male Wistar rats

    ­ Gingival tissue SOD concentration

    ¯ Gingival tissue NADPH oxidase concentration

    (Corrêa et al., 2019)

    Resveratrol (0.4% in diet)

    HFD-fed male C57BL/6J mice

    ¯ Protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α)

    (Kim et al., 2011)

    Resveratrol (100 µmol L–1)

    Palmitate treated C2C12 cells

    ¯ TNF-α and IL-6 expression

    (Sadeghi et al., 2017)

    Berberine (200–300 mg kg–1)

    HFD-fed male C57BL/6 mice

    ¯ Body weight gain and insulin resistance

    (Hu et al., 2018)

    Berberine (75–150 mg kg–1)

    HFD-fed male C57BL/6 mice

    ¯ Serum insulin and free fatty acids

    ¯ Adipose tissue mass

    (Wang et al., 2018)

    Berberine (150 mg kg–1)

    HFD-fed male C57BL/6 mice

    ¯ Serum triglycerides

    ¯ Hepatic triglycerides

    ¯ Hepatic CD36 expression

    (Sun et al., 2017)

    Berberine (380 mg kg–1)

    Type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats

    ¯ Fasting glucose

    ­ Insulin sensitivity

    (Xia et al., 2011)

    Berberine (50–100 mg kg–1)

    Male mice

    ­ Protein expression of GSH-Px-1/2 and GR

    ¯ MDA and LPO levels

    ¯ Expression of NF-κB elements

    (He et al., 2017)

    Curcumin (100 mg kg–1)

    Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats

    ¯ Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and free fatty acids

    (Kim et al., 2016)

    Curcumin (500–1500 mg kg–1)

    HFD-fed male C57BL/6 mice

    ¯ Liver CD36/FAT protein expression

    (Zingg et al., 2017)

    Curcumin (50–100 mg kg–1)

    Dalton’s Lymphoma model in Mus musculus

    ­ Liver GR and NQO1 activity and expression

    (Das and Vinayak, 2015)

    Curcumin (5–20 µmol L–1)

    Palmitate treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    ¯ TNF-α and IL-6 expression and secretion

    ¯ NF-κB p65 and nucleic NF-κB p65 protein expression

    (Wang et al., 2009)

    Curcumin (100 µmol L–1)

    H2O2 treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    ¯ IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1 secretion, and NF-κB gene expression

    (Septembre-Malaterre et al., 2016)

    EGCG, epigallocatechin gallate; HFD, high fat diet; LDL-C, LDL cholesterol; HDL-C, HDL cholesterol; VLDL, VLDL cholesterol; GSH, glutathione; GSSG, glutathione disulfide; GR, glutathione reductase; GSH-Px, glutathione peroxidase; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; MDA, malondialdehyde; 4-HNE, 4-hydroxynonenal; LPO, lipid peroxide; 3-NT, 3-nitrotyrosine; NQO1, NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1; MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; NF-κB, nuclear factor-κB; IL-1β, interleukin-1β; IL-6, interleukin-6; CD36/FAT, fatty acid transporter.

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