logo

SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 7: 1053-1075(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-018-9337-8

Continental drift, plateau uplift, and the evolutions of monsoon and arid regions in Asia, Africa, and Australia during the Cenozoic

More info
  • ReceivedOct 6, 2018
  • AcceptedJan 30, 2019
  • PublishedMar 26, 2019

Abstract

Monsoon and arid regions in the Asia-Africa-Australia (A-A-A) realm occupy more than 60% of the total area of these continents. Geological evidence showed that significant changes occurred to the A-A-A environments of the monsoon and arid regions, the land-ocean configuration in the Eastern Hemisphere, and the topography of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in the Cenozoic. Motivated by this background, numerical experiments for 5 typical geological periods during the Cenozoic were conducted using a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model to systemically explore the formations and evolutionary histories of the Cenozoic A-A-A monsoon and arid regions under the influences of continental drift and plateau uplift. Results of the numerical experiments indicate that the timings and causes of the formations of monsoon and arid regions in the A-A-A realm were very different. The northern and southern African monsoons existed during the mid-Paleocene, while the South Asian monsoon appeared in the Eocene after the Indian Subcontinent moved into the tropical Northern Hemisphere. In contrast, the East Asian monsoon and northern Australian monsoon were established much later in the Miocene. The establishment of the tropical monsoons in northern and southern Africa, South Asia, and Australia were determined by both the continental drift and seasonal migration of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), while the position and height of the TP were the key factor for the establishment of the East Asian monsoon. The presence of the subtropical arid regions in northern and southern Africa, Asia, and Australia depended on the positions of the continents and the control of the planetary scale subtropical high pressure zones, while the arid regions in the Arabian Peninsula and West Asia were closely related to the retreat of the Paratethys Sea. The formation of the mid-latitude arid region in the Asian interior, on the other hand, was the consequence of the uplift of the TP. These results from this study provide insight to the important roles played by the earth’s tectonic boundary conditions in the formations and evolutions of regional climates during geological times.


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant,Nos.,41690115,&,41572150)

the Strategic Priority Research Program(A)


Acknowledgment

The authors sincerely thank the anonymous reviewers who provided valuable comments and suggestions that helped revision of the manuscript. This work was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41690115 & 41572150) and the Strategic Priority Research Program (A) of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA20070103). B Dong and R S Smith were supported by the U.K. National Centre for Atmospheric Science-Climate (NCAS-Climate) at the University of Reading. Z Y Yin was in part supported by the University of San Diego (FRG # 2017-18).


References

[1] Alaei Kakhki N, Aliabadian M, Schweizer M. Out of Africa: Biogeographic history of the open-habitat chats (Aves, Muscicapidae: Saxicolinae) across arid areas of the old world. Zool Scr, 2016, 45: 237-251 CrossRef Google Scholar

[2] An Z, Kutzbach J E, Prell W L, Porter S C. Evolution of Asian monsoons and phased uplift of the Himalaya-Tibetan plateau since Late Miocene times. Nature, 2001, 411: 62-66 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[3] An Z. The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate. Quat Sci Rev, 2000, 19: 171-187 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[4] Beerling D J, Royer D L. Convergent Cenozoic CO2 history. Nat Geosci, 2011, 4: 418-420 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[5] Berry G, Reeder M J. Objective identification of the intertropical convergence zone: Climatology and trends from the ERA-Interim. J Clim, 2014, 27: 1894-1909 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[6] Besse J, Courtillot V, Pozzi J P, Westphal M, Zhou Y X. Palaeomagnetic estimates of crustal shortening in the Himalayan thrusts and Zangbo suture. Nature, 1984, 311: 621-626 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[7] Bobe R. The evolution of arid ecosystems in eastern Africa. J Arid Environ, 2006, 66: 564-584 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[8] Bosboom R, Dupont-Nivet G, Grothe A, Brinkhuis H, Villa G, Mandic O, Stoica M, Huang W, Yang W, Guo Z, Krijgsman W. Linking Tarim Basin sea retreat (west China) and Asian aridification in the late Eocene. Basin Res, 2014, 26: 621-640 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[9] Bowler J M, Wyrwoll K H, Lu Y. Variations of the northwest Australian summer monsoon over the last 300,000 years: The paleohydrological record of the Gregory (Mulan) Lakes System. Quat Int, 2001, 83–85: 63-80 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[10] Caley T, Malaizé B, Revel M, Ducassou E, Wainer K, Ibrahim M, Shoeaib D, Migeon S, Marieu V. Orbital timing of the Indian, East Asian and African boreal monsoons and the concept of a ‘global monsoon’. Quat Sci Rev, 2011, 30: 3705-3715 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[11] Carrapa B, Huntington K W, Clementz M, Quade J, Bywater-Reyes S, Schoenbohm L M, Canavan R R. Uplift of the Central Andes of NW Argentina associated with upper crustal shortening, revealed by multiproxy isotopic analyses. Tectonics, 2014, 33: 1039-1054 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[12] Caves J K, Moragne D Y, Ibarra D E, Bayshashov B U, Gao Y, Jones M M, Zhamangara A, Arzhannikova A V, Arzhannikov S G, Chamberlain C P. The Neogene de-greening of Central Asia. Geology, 2016, 44: 887-890 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[13] Chatterjee S, Goswami A, Scotese C R. The longest voyage: Tectonic, magmatic, and paleoclimatic evolution of the Indian plate during its northward flight from Gondwana to Asia. Gondwana Res, 2013, 23: 238-267 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[14] Chiang J C H, Bitz C M. Influence of high latitude ice cover on the marine Intertropical Convergence Zone. Clim Dyn, 2005, 25: 477-496 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[15] Colin C, Siani G, Liu Z, Blamart D, Skonieczny C, Zhao Y, Bory A, Frank N, Duchamp-Alphonse S, Thil F, Richter T, Kissel C, Gargani J. Late Miocene to early Pliocene climate variability off NW Africa (ODP Site 659). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 2014, 401: 81-95 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[16] DeCelles P G, Quade J, Kapp P, Fan M, Dettman D L, Ding L. High and dry in central Tibet during the Late Oligocene. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 2007, 253: 389-401 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[17] deMenocal P B. Plio-pleistocene African climate. Science, 1995, 270: 53-59 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[18] Dettman D L, Fang X, Garzione C N, Li J. Uplift-driven climate change at 12 Ma: A long δ18O record from the NE margin of the Tibetan plateau. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 2003, 214: 267-277 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[19] Ding L, Xu Q, Yue Y, Wang H, Cai F, Li S. The Andean-type Gangdese Mountains: Paleoelevation record from the Paleocene–Eocene Linzhou Basin. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 2014, 392: 250-264 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[20] Ding Z, Rutter N, Jingtai H, Tungsheng L. A coupled environmental system formed at about 2.5 Ma in East Asia. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 1992, 94: 223-242 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[21] Fan M, Carrapa B. Late Cretaceous-early Eocene Laramide uplift, exhumation, and basin subsidence in Wyoming: Crustal responses to flat slab subduction. Tectonics, 2014, 33: 509-529 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[22] Fang X, Zan J, Appel E, Lu Y, Song C, Dai S, Tuo S. An Eocene–Miocene continuous rock magnetic record from the sediments in the Xining Basin, NW China: Indication for Cenozoic persistent drying driven by global cooling and Tibetan Plateau uplift. Geophys J Int, 2015, 201: 78-89 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[23] Fujioka T, Chappell J. History of Australian aridity: chronology in the evolution of arid landscapes. Geol Soc London Spec Publ, 2010, 346: 121-139 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[24] Gadgil S. The Indian Monsoon and its variability. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci, 2003, 31: 429-467 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[25] Gadgil S. The monsoon system: Land-sea breeze or the ITCZ?. J Earth Syst Sci, 2018, 127: 1 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[26] Guo Z T, Ruddiman W F, Hao Q Z, Wu H B, Qiao Y S, Zhu R X, Peng S Z, Wei J J, Yuan B Y, Liu T S. Onset of Asian desertification by 22 Myr ago inferred from loess deposits in China. Nature, 2002, 416: 159-163 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[27] Guo Z T, Sun B, Zhang Z S, Peng S Z, Xiao G Q, Ge J Y, Hao Q Z, Qiao Y S, Liang M Y, Liu J F, Yin Q Z, Wei J J. A major reorganization of Asian climate by the early Miocene. Clim Past, 2008, 4: 153-174 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Guo Z. Loess Plateau attests to the onsets of monsoon and deserts (in Chinese). Sci Sin Terrae, 2017, 47: 421-437 CrossRef Google Scholar

[29] Gupta A K, Yuvaraja A, Prakasam M, Clemens S C, Velu A. Evolution of the South Asian monsoon wind system since the late Middle Miocene. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 2015, 438: 160-167 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[30] Gurnis M, Turner M, Zahirovic S, DiCaprio L, Spasojevic S, Müller R D, Boyden J, Seton M, Manea V C, Bower D J. Plate tectonic reconstructions with continuously closing plates. Comput Geosci, 2012, 38: 35-42 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[31] Hall R. Cenozoic geological and plate tectonic evolution of SE Asia and the SW Pacific: Computer-based reconstructions, model and animations. J Asian Earth Sci, 2002, 20: 353-431 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[32] Herold N, Seton M, Müller R D, You Y, Huber M. Middle Miocene tectonic boundary conditions for use in climate models. Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 2008, 9: Q10009 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[33] Huber M, Goldner A. Eocene monsoons. J Asian Earth Sci, 2012, 44: 3-23 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[34] Jones C, Gregory J, Thorpe R, Cox P, Murphy J, Sexton D, Valdes P. Systematic optimisation and climate simulation of FAMOUS, a fast version of HadCM3. Clim Dyn, 2005, 25: 189-204 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[35] Kroon D, Steens T N F, Troelstra S R. 1991. Onset of monsoonal related upwelling in the western Arabian Sea as revealed by planktonic foraminifers. Proc Ocean Drill Prog Sci Res, 117: 257–263. Google Scholar

[36] Kutzbach J E, Prell W L, Ruddiman W F. Sensitivity of Eurasian climate to surface uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. J Geol, 1993, 101: 177-190 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[37] Läderach A, Raible C C. Lower-tropospheric humidity: climatology, trends and the relation to the ITCZ. Tellus Ser A-Dyn Meteorol Oceanogr, 2013, 65: 20413 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[38] Li J X, Yue L P, Roberts A P, Hirt A M, Pan F, Guo L, Xu Y, Xi R G, Guo L, Qiang X K, Gai C C, Jiang Z X, Sun Z M, Liu Q S. Global cooling and enhanced Eocene Asian mid-latitude interior aridity. Nat Commun, 2018a, 9: 3026 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[39] Li X, Zhang R, Zhang Z, Yan Q. What enhanced the aridity in Eocene Asian inland: Global cooling or early Tibetan Plateau uplift?. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 2018b, 510: 6-14 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[40] Licht A, van Cappelle M, Abels H A, Ladant J B, Trabucho-Alexandre J, France-Lanord C, Donnadieu Y, Vandenberghe J, Rigaudier T, Lécuyer C, Terry Jr D, Adriaens R, Boura A, Guo Z, Soe A N, Quade J, Dupont-Nivet G, Jaeger J J. Asian monsoons in a late Eocene greenhouse world. Nature, 2014, 513: 501-506 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[41] Linder H P. East African Cenozoic vegetation history. Evol Anthropol, 2017, 26: 300-312 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[42] Liu X D, Dong B W. Influence of the Tibetan Plateau uplift on the Asian monsoon-arid environment evolution. Chin Sci Bull, 2013, 58: 4277-4291 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[43] Liu X, Dong B, Yin Z Y, Smith R S, Guo Q. Continental drift and plateau uplift control origination and evolution of Asian and Australian monsoons. Sci Rep, 2017, 7: 40344 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[44] Liu X, Guo Q, Guo Z, Yin Z Y, Dong B, Smith R. Where were the monsoon regions and arid zones in Asia prior to the Tibetan Plateau uplift?. Nat Sci Rev, 2015a, 2: 403-416 CrossRef Google Scholar

[45] Liu X, Sun H, Miao Y, Dong B, Yin Z Y. Impacts of uplift of northern Tibetan Plateau and formation of Asian inland deserts on regional climate and environment. Quat Sci Rev, 2015b, 116: 1-14 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[46] Liu X, Yin Z Y. Sensitivity of East Asian monsoon climate to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 2002, 183: 223-245 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[47] Liu T S, 1985. Loess and the Environment. Beijing: China Ocean Press. 1–234. Google Scholar

[48] Lu H Y, Guo Z T. Evolution of the monsoon and dry climate in East Asia during late Cenozoic: A review. Sci China Earth Sci, 2014, 57: 70-79 CrossRef Google Scholar

[49] Manabe S, Broccoli A J. Mountains and arid climates of middle latitudes. Science, 1990, 247: 192-195 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[50] Marin J, Donnellan S C, Hedges S B, Doughty P, Hutchinson M N, Cruaud C, Vidal N. 2013. Tracing the history and biogeography of the Australian blindsnake radiation. J Biogeogr, 40: 928–937. Google Scholar

[51] Martin H A. Cenozoic climatic change and the development of the arid vegetation in Australia. J Arid Environ, 2006, 66: 533-563 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[52] McIlveen R. 2010. Fundamentals of Weather and Climate. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press. 527–534. Google Scholar

[53] Miller H B D, Vasconcelos P M, Eiler J M, Farley K A. A Cenozoic terrestrial paleoclimate record from He dating and stable isotope geochemistry of goethites from Western Australia. Geology, 2017, 45: 895-898 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[54] Molnar P, Stock J M. Slowing of India’s convergence with Eurasia since 20 Ma and its implications for Tibetan mantle dynamics. Tectonics, 2009, 28: TC3001 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[55] Nicholson S E. 2009. A revised picture of the structure of the “monsoon” and land ITCZ over West Africa. Clim Dyn, 32: 1155–1171. Google Scholar

[56] Peel M C, Finlayson B L, McMahon T A. Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci, 2007, 11: 1633-1644 CrossRef Google Scholar

[57] Polissar P J, Freeman K H, Rowley D B, McInerney F A, Currie B S. Paleoaltimetry of the Tibetan Plateau from D/H ratios of lipid biomarkers. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 2009, 287: 64-76 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[58] Popov S V, Shcherba I G, Ilyina L B, Nevesskaya L A, Paramonova N P, Khondkarian S O, Magyar I. Late Miocene to Pliocene palaeogeography of the Paratethys and its relation to the Mediterranean. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 2006, 238: 91-106 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[59] Quade J, Cerling T E, Bowman J R. Development of Asian monsoon revealed by marked ecological shift during the latest Miocene in northern Pakistan. Nature, 1989, 342: 163-166 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[60] Quan C, Liu Y S C, Utescher T. Eocene monsoon prevalence over China: A paleobotanical perspective. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 2012, 365–366: 302-311 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[61] Ramstein G, Fluteau F, Besse J, Joussaume S. Effect of orogeny, plate motion and land-sea distribution on Eurasian climate change over the past 30 million years. Nature, 1997, 386: 788-795 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[62] Rea D K, Snoeckx H, Joseph L H. Late Cenozoic Eolian deposition in the North Pacific: Asian drying, Tibetan uplift, and cooling of the northern hemisphere. Paleoceanography, 1998, 13: 215-224 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[63] Rix M G, Cooper S J B, Meusemann K, Klopfstein S, Harrison S E, Harvey M S, Austin A D. Post-Eocene climate change across continental Australia and the diversification of Australasian spiny trapdoor spiders (Idiopidae: Arbanitinae). Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2017, 109: 302-320 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[64] Rodwell M J, Hoskins B J. Monsoons and the dynamics of deserts. Q J R Meteorol Soc, 1996, 122: 1385-1404 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[65] Rowley D B, Currie B S. Palaeo-altimetry of the late Eocene to Miocene Lunpola basin, central Tibet. Nature, 2006, 439: 677-681 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[66] Scotese C R. A continental drift flipbook. J Geol, 2004, 112: 729-741 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[67] Searle M P, Windley B F, Coward M P, Cooper D J W, Rex A J, Rex D, Tingdong L, Xuchang X, Jan M Q, Thakur V C, Kumar S. The closing of Tethys and the tectonics of the Himalaya. Geol Soc Am Bull, 1987, 98: 678-701 CrossRef Google Scholar

[68] Senut B, Pickford M, Ségalen L. Neogene desertification of Africa. C R Geosci, 2009, 341: 591-602 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[69] Shi Z, Liu X, An Z, Yi B, Yang P, Mahowald N. Simulated variations of eolian dust from inner Asian deserts at the mid-Pliocene, last glacial maximum, and present day: Contributions from the regional tectonic uplift and global climate change. Clim Dyn, 2011, 37: 2289-2301 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[70] Shukla A, Mehrotra R C, Spicer R A, Spicer T E V, Kumar M. Cool equatorial terrestrial temperatures and the South Asian monsoon in the Early Eocene: Evidence from the Gurha Mine, Rajasthan, India. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 2014, 412: 187-198 CrossRef Google Scholar

[71] Smith R S, Gregory J M, Osprey A. A description of the FAMOUS (version XDBUA) climate model and control run. Geosci Model Dev, 2008, 1: 53-68 CrossRef Google Scholar

[72] Smith R S, Gregory J. The last glacial cycle: Transient simulations with an AOGCM. Clim Dyn, 2012, 38: 1545-1559 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[73] Spicer R, Yang J, Herman A, Kodrul T, Aleksandrova G, Maslova N, Spicer T, Ding L, Xu Q, Shukla A, Srivastava G, Mehrotra R, Liu X Y, Jin J H. Paleogene monsoons across India and South China: Drivers of biotic change. Gondwana Res, 2017, 49: 350-363 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[74] Sun J, Windley B F. Onset of aridification by 34 Ma across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in Central Asia. Geology, 2015, 43: 1015-1018 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[75] Sun J, Gong Z, Tian Z, Jia Y, Windley B. Late Miocene stepwise aridification in the Asian interior and the interplay between tectonics and climate. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 2015, 421: 48-59 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[76] Sun X, Wang P. How old is the Asian monsoon system?—Palaeobotanical records from China. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 2005, 222: 181-222 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[77] Sun Y, An Z. History and variability of Asian interior aridity recorded by eolian flux in the Chinese Loess Plateau during the past 7 Ma. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 2002, 45: 420-429 CrossRef Google Scholar

[78] Veranso-Libalah M C, Kadereit G, Stone R D, Couvreur T L P. Multiple shifts to open habitats in Melastomateae (Melastomataceae) congruent with the increase of African Neogene climatic aridity. J Biogeogr, 2018, 45: 1420-1431 CrossRef Google Scholar

[79] Wang B, Ding Q. Changes in global monsoon precipitation over the past 56 years. Geophys Res Lett, 2006, 33: L06711 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[80] Wang B, Liu J, Kim H J, Webster P J, Yim S Y. Recent change of the global monsoon precipitation (1979–2008). Clim Dyn, 2012, 39: 1123-1135 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[81] Wang C, Dai J, Zhao X, Li Y, Graham S A, He D, Ran B, Meng J. Outward-growth of the Tibetan Plateau during the Cenozoic: A review. Tectonophysics, 2014, 621: 1-43 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[82] Wang P X. Global monsoon in a geological perspective. Chin Sci Bull, 2009, 54: 1113-1136 CrossRef Google Scholar

[83] Webster P J. 1987. The elementary monsoon. In: Fein J S, Stephens P L, eds. Monsoons. New York: John Wiley. 3–32. Google Scholar

[84] Webster P J. 2004. The elementary Hadley circulation. In: Diaz H F, Bradley R S, eds. Present, Past and Future. Dordrecht: Springer. 9–60. Google Scholar

[85] Wei H H, Meng Q R, Ding L, Li Z Y. Tertiary evolution of the western Tarim basin, northwest China: A tectono-sedimentary response to northward indentation of the Pamir salient. Tectonics, 2013, 32: 558-575 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[86] Williams M. Interactions between fluvial and eolian geomorphic systems and processes: Examples from the Sahara and Australia. Catena, 2015, 134: 4-13 CrossRef Google Scholar

[87] Wu G, Liu Y, He B, Bao Q, Duan A, Jin F F. Thermal controls on the Asian summer monsoon. Sci Rep, 2012, 2: 404 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[88] Wu G X, Liu Y, Zhu X, Li W, Ren R, Duan A, Liang X. Multi-scale forcing and the formation of subtropical desert and monsoon. Ann Geophys, 2009, 27: 3631-3644 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[89] Wyrwoll K H, Miller G H. Initiation of the Australian summer monsoon 14,000 years ago. Quat Int, 2001, 83–85: 119-128 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[90] Xie P, Arkin P A. Analyses of global monthly precipitation using gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model predictions. J Clim, 1996, 9: 840-858 CrossRef Google Scholar

[91] Zachos J, Pagani M, Sloan L, Thomas E, Billups K. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science, 2001, 292: 686-693 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[92] Žagar N, Skok G, Tribbia J. Climatology of the ITCZ derived from ERA Interim reanalyses. J Geophys Res, 2011, 116: D15103 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[93] Zhang Z, Flatøy F, Wang H, Bethke I, Bentsen M, Guo Z. Early Eocene Asian climate dominated by desert and steppe with limited monsoons. J Asian Earth Sci, 2012, 44: 24-35 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[94] Zhang Z, Ramstein G, Schuster M, Li C, Contoux C, Yan Q. Aridification of the Sahara desert caused by Tethys Sea shrinkage during the Late Miocene. Nature, 2014, 513: 401-404 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[95] Zhao S Q. 1983. A new scheme for comprehensive geographical regionalization in China. Acta Geogr Sin, 38: 1–10. Google Scholar

[96] Zhuang G, Pagani M, Zhang Y G. Monsoonal upwelling in the western Arabian Sea since the middle Miocene. Geology, 2017, 45: 655-658 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    Distributions of the present day Asian-African-Australian monsoon regions (green) and arid regions (yellow). (a) Simulation; (b) observation. The blue shaded area is ocean or lake, and the contours indicate the elevations (m) of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its vicinity.

  • Figure 2

    Distributions of the Asian-African-Australian monsoon regions (green) and arid regions (yellow) in five periods during the Cenozoic. (a) Mid-Paleocene (60 Ma); (b) late-Eocene (40 Ma); (c) late-Oligocene (25 Ma); (d) late-Miocene (10 Ma); (e) present-day (0 Ma). The blue shade is oceans or lakes, and the grey outlines indicate the 1500 m elevation contour of the TP and its vicinity.

  • Figure 3

    Area changes of four monsoon regions (left column) and five arid regions (right column) in the five geological periods of the Cenozoic. (a) North Africa monsoon region; (b) South Africa monsoon region; (c) Asian monsoon region; (d) Australian monsoon region; (e) North Africa arid region; (f) South Africa arid region; (g) West Asia arid region (Asia west of 70°E); (h) East Asia arid region (Asia east of 70°E), (i) Australian arid region.

  • Figure 4

    Distributions of the Northern Hemisphere winter mean (left column) and summer mean (right column) precipitation (shaded) and 500 hPa vertical velocity (contours) in the five geological periods during the Cenozoic. (a), (f) mid-Paleocene; (b), (g) late-Eocene; (c), (h) late-Oligocene; (d), (i) late-Miocene; (e), (j) present-day. Precipitation rate unit: mm d–1, vertical velocity interval: 0.01 Pa s–1. The red lines are zero contours. The negative values (dashed lines) indicate ascending motion.

  • Figure 5

    Comparison of the Asia-Africa-Australia monsoon regions (green) and the coverages of the ITCZ (areas where ω<–0.015 Pa s–1 at 500 hPa) in boreal winter (blue lines) and boreal summer (red lines) for the five periods of the Cenozoic. (a) Mid-Paleocene; (b) late-Eocene; (c) late-Oligocene; (d) late-Miocene; (e) present-day. The grey outlines indicate the 1500 m elevation contours of the TP and its vicinity.

  • Figure 6

    The 850 hPa summer mean streamline fields with the northern boundary (red lines) of the summer monsoon circulation over East Asia (left column) and variations of summer precipitation rate (mm d–1) averaged for the longitude range (105°E–120°E) of East Asian monsoon by latitude (right column) in the five periods of the Cenozoic. (a), (f) mid-Paleocene; (b), (g) late-Eocene; (c), (h) late-Oligocene; (d), (i) late-Miocene; (e), (j) present-day. The blue and black shades indicate the ocean and the plateau topography, respectively in (a)–(e).

  • Figure 7

    Distribution of the Asia-Africa-Australia arid regions (yellow) and annual mean sea level pressure fields (contours) in the five periods during the Cenozoic. (a), (f) mid-Paleocene; (b), (g) late-Eocene; (c), (h) late-Oligocene; (d), (i) late-Miocene; (e), (j) present-day. The red isobars indicate high pressure zones. The grey outlines indicate the 1500 m elevation contours of the TP and its vicinity. Unit of sea level pressure: hPa.

  • Figure 8

    Cross-sections of global zonal mean (left column) and Asian (70°E–120°E) zonal mean (right column) of the meridional mass stream function (shades) and meridional circulation (wind vectors) in the five periods of the Cenozoic. From top to bottom, results of mid-Paleocene, late-Eocene, late-Oligocene, late-Miocene and present-day are shown, respectively. Unit of streamfunction: 1010 kg s–1, unit of meridional wind speed: m s–1, unit of vertical wind speed: 10–2 Pa s–1.

  • Figure 9

    Cross sections of boreal winter (left column) and summer (right column) vertical velocity averaged for the longitude range (70°E–120°E) where the Asia landmass is located. From top to bottom, results of mid-Paleocene, late-Eocene, late-Oligocene, late-Miocene and present-day are shown, respectively. Yellow shades indicate the ascending motion areas. Unit: 10–2 Pa s–1.

  • Figure 10

    Comparative experiments that simulated distributions of monsoon regions (green) and arid regions (yellow) without topography and experiments with pre-industrial CO2 level with and without topography for the late-Eocene land-ocean configuration. (a), (b), (c) and (d) correspond to the experiments of the late-Eocene, late-Oligocene, late-Miocene and present-day land-sea configurations but without topography, respectively; (e), (f) correspond to the experiments with and without topography, respectively, under condition of the late-Eocene land-sea configuration and pre-industrial CO2 level. Blue shades represent oceans or lakes. The gray outline indicates the 1500 m elevation contour in (e).

  • Figure 11

    Regional topographic and land-sea distribution characteristics during the Cenozoic and changes in the sizes of the monsoon and arid regions. (a) the mean altitude, area, mean latitude of the TP above 1500 m and the area of the Asian monsoon region; (b) the central latitude of the TP, the area with elevations exceeding 1500m of the TP north of 30°N, and the area of the Asian inland arid region north of 40°N on the northern side of the TP; (c) the areas of land, ocean and arid regions in the mid-low latitudes from Western Europe-North Africa to Central Asia (20°W–100°E, 20°N–60°N); (d) the northernmost latitude of the Australian continent, area of the Australian monsoon region, central latitude of the Australian continent and area of the Australian arid region.

Copyright 2019 Science China Press Co., Ltd. 《中国科学》杂志社有限责任公司 版权所有

京ICP备18024590号-1