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SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences, Volume 60 , Issue 7 : 1075-1087(2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11431-016-9012-8

Combustion characteristics of nanofluid fuels in a half-opening slot tube

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  • ReceivedDec 13, 2016
  • AcceptedFeb 6, 2017
  • PublishedMay 4, 2017

Abstract

Combustion characteristics of nanofluid fuels containing aluminum nanoparticles were investigated in half-opening slot tubes from the fundamental view. The effects of particle loading rates (0.25% and 2.5% by weight), type of base fuels (ethanol and butanol), and fuel flow rates (0.2, 0.6, and 1 mL/min) were studied in details. The combustion characteristics of the nanofluid fuels and pure based fuels were also examined to provide a comparison. Flame was unstable with reignition, stable state, nearly extinguishment repeatedly at low flow rate. At medium flow rate, flame height was increased and flame tended to be stable. At high flow rate, flame became unstable and was disturbed by the droplet forming and dripping significantly. Al atoms inside the oxide layer should be melted before the particles combustion, while Al oxide layer should be melted before the particles aggregates combustion. The effects of particles on the combustion characteristics, especially on the evaporation rate of base fuel, were discussed. The reasons for various combustion phenomena of nanofluid fuels were given, which can provide the useful guidance for the experimental research and practical applications of nanofluid fuels.


Funded by

National Natural Science Foundation of China(51576100)

Jiangsu Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China(BK20140034)

Jiangsu Provincial Project of “Six Talent Summit”(2014-XNY-002)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51576100), the Jiangsu Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. BK20140034), and the Jiangsu Provincial Project of “Six Talent Summit” (Grant No. 2014-XNY-002). The authors thank Prof. Li Qiao from Purdue University for helpful discussions on this topic, and also thank Mr. Ayoub O.G. Abdalla for experimental assistant.


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Schematic of the nanofluid fuel combustion system.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Definitions of geometrical parameters of fuel flame.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Combustion sequences of dilute ethanol-based nanofluid fuel and pure ethanol at low fuel flow rate. (a)–(f) Nanofluid fuel; (g)–(l) pure ethanol.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Combustion sequences of dilute ethanol-based nanofluid fuel and pure ethanol at medium fuel flow rate. (a)–(f) Nanofluid fuel; (g)–(l) pure ethanol.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Combustion sequences of dilute ethanol-based nanofluid fuel and pure ethanol at high fuel flow rate. (a)–(f) Nanofluid fuel; (g)–(l) pure ethanol.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Flame parameters of dilute ethanol-based nanofluid fuel and pure ethanol fuel with time at various flow rates. (a) Flame length (L) and area (A) at 0.2 mL/min; (b) flame centroid (Xc, Yc) at 0.2 mL/min; (c) flame length (L) and area (A) at 0.6 mL/min; (a) flame centroid (Xc, Yc) at 0.6 mL/min; (a) flame length (L) and area (A) at 1 mL/min; (a) flame centroid (Xc, Yc) at 1 mL/min.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) Combustion sequences of dense ethanol-based nanofluid fuels at low, medium, high fuel flow rates. (a)–(f) At low rate; (g)–(l) at medium rate; (m)–(r) at high rate.

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) Flame parameters of dense ethanol-based nanofluid fuel with time at various flow rates. (a) Flame length (L); (b) flame area (A); (c) flame centroid (Xc); (d) flame centroid (Yc).

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) Combustion sequences of dilute butanol-based nanofluid fuel and pure butanol at low fuel flow rate. (a)–(f) nanofluid fuel; (g)–(l) pure butanol.

  • Figure 10

    (Color online) Combustion sequences of dilute butanol-based nanofluid fuel and pure butanol at medium fuel flow rate. (a)–(f) Nanofluid fuel; (g)–(l) pure butanol.

  • Figure 11

    (Color online) Combustion sequences of dilute butanol-based nanofluid fuel and pure butanol at high fuel flow rate. (a)–(f) Nanofluid fuel; (g)–(l) pure butanol.

  • Figure 12

    (Color online) Flame parameters of dilute butanol-based nanofluid fuel and pure butanol fuel with time at various flow rates. (a) Flame length (L) and area (A) at 0.2 mL/min; (b) flame centroid (Xc, Yc) at 0.2 mL/min; (c) flame length (L) and area (A) at 0.6 mL/min; (d) flame centroid (Xc, Yc) at 0.6 mL/min; (e) flame length (L) and area (A) at 1 mL/min; (f) flame centroid (Xc, Yc) at 1 mL/min.

  • Figure 13

    (Color online) Combustion sequences of dense butanol-based nanofluid fuels at low, medium, high fuel flow rates. (a)–(f) At low rate; (g)–(l) at medium rate; (m)–(r) at high rate.

  • Figure 14

    (Color online) Flame parameters of dense butanol-based nanofluid fuel with time at various flow rates. (a) Flame length (L); (b) flame area (A); (c) flame centroid (Xc); (d) flame centroid (Yc).

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