SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences, Volume 60 , Issue 7 : 1068-1074(2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11431-016-9021-5

Magnetically levitated/piezoelectric/triboelectric hybrid generator as a power supply for the temperature sensor

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  • ReceivedOct 12, 2016
  • AcceptedFeb 27, 2017
  • PublishedMay 8, 2017


The combination of new intelligent materials and structure technology is becoming an effective way in energy havesting and self-powered sensing. In this work, we demonstrate a magnetically levitated/piezoelectric/triboelectric hybrid generator, which does not use complex structure and has high steady output performance. It includes three parts: magnetically levitated generator (MLG), piezoelectric generator (PNG), triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). The peak power of each is 135 μW, 22mW and 3.6mW, which are obtained at 1 MΩ, 10 kΩ and 1 kΩ, respectively. The hybrid generator can completely light up light-emitting diodes (LEDs) under the vibration frequency of 20Hz and the vibration amplitude of 10mm. It also can charge a 470 μF capacitor. On this basis, we have integrated the hybrid generaor as a power supply into a self-powered tempreature sensing system. The combination of three generators can not only broaden the operating range, but also increase the operating length and sensitivity. This work will extend the application of self-powered sensor in automatic production line and promote the development of industrial control technology.

Funded by

National Science Foundation of China(61525107,51422510 ,&, 51605449)

National High Technology Research and Development Program of China(2015AA042601)


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61525107, 51422510 & 51605449) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA042601). Patents have been filed based on the research results presented in this manuscript.


Supporting information

The supporting information is available online at tech.scichina.com and www.springerlink.com. The supporting materials are published as submitted, without typesetting or editing. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and content remains entirely with the authors.


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  • Figure 1

    (a) Schematic diagram of the hybrid generator; (b) photograph of the fabricated hybrid generator; (c) photograph of the prepared piezoelectricity crystal; (d) SEM image of the prepared PDMS film; (e) SEM image of the prepared copper foam.

  • Figure 2

    Schematic diagram of the generation process of electricity, indicating the relationship between the direction of current flow and the distance of separation. (a) The coil is moving down; (b) the coil moves down to the bottom; (c) the coil is moving up; (d) the coil moves up to the roof.

  • Figure 3

    Finite element simulation of MLG motion. (a) Simulation of the magnetic field in the middle position; (b) simulation of the magnetic field in the high position; (c) simulation of the magnetic field in the low position; (d) simulation of the magnetic flux density in the middle position; (e) simulation of the magnetic flux density in the high position; (f) simulation of the magnetic flux density in the low position.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Output performance of the hybrid generator. (a) Open-circuit voltage of TENG; (b) current of TENG; (c) triboelectric peak voltage and power under different externalload resistances; (d) open-circuit voltage of PNG; (e) current of PNG; (f) piezoelectric peak voltage and power under different external resistances; (g) output voltage of MLG; (h) current of MLG; (i) electromagnetic peak voltage and power under different external load resistances.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) (a) synchronous output voltage of the TENG, PNG and MLG with vibration amplitude of 5 mm; (b) output voltage of the TENG with vibration amplitude of 5 mm; (c) output voltage of the PNG with vibration amplitude of 5 mm;(d) output voltage of the MLG with vibration amplitude of 5 mm.

  • Figure 6

    The hybrid generator can light up 35 LEDs.

  • Figure 7

    (a) Charging test platform with a power management circuit; (b) the charging curves of the hybrid generator for a capacitor.

  • Figure 8

    (a) The capacitor can be charged to enough voltage in 13 s to power the temperature sensor; (b) The temperature sensor can keep working for about 30 s after stopping vibration.

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