logo

SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences, Volume 60 , Issue 11 : 1597-1615(2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11431-016-9071-7

Research trend of cascade heat pumps

More info
  • ReceivedFeb 22, 2017
  • AcceptedMay 23, 2017
  • PublishedSep 8, 2017

Abstract

Most commercial and industrial facilities require very low temperatures for refrigeration and high temperatures for space heating and hot water purposes. Single stage heat pumps have not been able to meet these temperature demands and have been characterized by low capacities and coefficient of performance (COP). Cascade heat pump has been developed to overcome the weaknesses of single stage heat pumps. This study reviews recent works done by researchers on cascade heat pumps for refrigeration, heating and hot water generation. Selection of suitable refrigerants to meet the pressure and temperature demands of each stage of the cascade heat pump has been discussed. Optimization of design parameters such as intermediate temperature (low stage condensing and high stage evaporating temperatures), and temperature difference in the cascade heat exchanger for optimum performance of the cascade heat pump has been reviewed. It was found that optimising each design parameter of the cascade heat pump is necessary for maximum system performance and this may improve the exergetic efficiency, especially of cascade refrigeration systems, by about 30.88%. Cascade heat pumps have wider range of application especially for artificial snow production, in the supermarkets, for natural gas liquefaction, in drying clothes and food and as heat recovery system. The performance of cascade heat pumps can be improved by 19% when coupled with other renewable energy sources for various real time applications. Also, there is the need for much research on refrigerant charge amount of cascade heat pumps, refrigerant-refrigerant heat exchangers to be used as cascade heat exchanger, cascade heat pumps for simultaneous cooling, heating and hot water generation and on the use of variable speed compressors and their control strategies in matching system capacity especially at part load conditions.


Funded by

New & Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning(KETEP)

Industry & Energy(No. 20143030111000)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (Grant No. 20143030111000).


References

[1] Cho C, Min Choi J. Experimental investigation of a multi-function heat pump under various operating modes. Renew Energy, 2013, 54: 253-258 CrossRef Google Scholar

[2] Johnstone N, Haščič I, Popp D. Renewable energy policies and technological innovation: Evidence based on patent counts. Environ Resour Econ, 2010, 45: 133-155 CrossRef Google Scholar

[3] Aikins K A, Lee S H, Choi J M. Technology review of two-stage vapor compression heat pump system. Int J Air-Cond Ref, 2013, 21: 1330002 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Zubair S M, Yaqub M, Khan S H. Second-law-based thermodynamic analysis of two-stage and mechanical-subcooling refrigeration cycles. Int J Refrig, 1996, 19: 506-516 CrossRef Google Scholar

[5] Jung H W, Kang H, Yoon W J, et al. Performance comparison between a single-stage and a cascade multi-functional heat pump for both air heating and hot water supply. Int J Refrig, 2013, 36: 1431-1441 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Hosoz M. Performance comparison of single-stage and cascade refrigeration systems using R134a as the working fluid. Turkish J Eng Env Sci, 2005, 29: 285–296. Google Scholar

[7] Wang B M, Xing Z W, Wu H G. Experimental study on the performance of a twin-screw CO2 compressor in NH3/CO2 cascade refrigeration system. P I Mech Eng A-J Pow, 2010, 224: 1141-1146 CrossRef Google Scholar

[8] Kim D H, Park H S, Kim M S. Optimal temperature between high and low stage cycles for R134a/R410A cascade heat pump based water heater system. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci, 2013, 47: 172-179 CrossRef Google Scholar

[9] Corberán J M, Martínez-Galván I, Martínez-Ballester S, et al. Influence of the source and sink temperatures on the optimal refrigerant charge of a water-to-water heat pump. Int J Refrig, 2011, 34: 881-892 CrossRef Google Scholar

[10] Jeong K, Choi J M. Capacity modulation of a cascade heat pump with the variation of compressor speed and electronic expansion valve opening. J Renew Sustain Energy, 2014, 6: 053107 CrossRef Google Scholar

[11] Di Nicola G, Giuliani G, Polonara F, et al. Blends of carbon dioxide and HFCs as working fluids for the low-temperature circuit in cascade refrigerating systems. Int J Refrig, 2005, 28: 130-140 CrossRef Google Scholar

[12] Messineo A, Panno D. Performance evaluation of cascade refrigeration systems using different refrigerants. Int J Air-Cond Ref, 2012, 20: 1250010 CrossRef Google Scholar

[13] Bhattacharyya S, Garai A, Sarkar J. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a novel N2O-CO2 cascade system for refrigeration and heating. Int J Refrig, 2009, 32: 1077-1084 CrossRef Google Scholar

[14] Sarkar J, Bhattacharyya S, Gopal M R. Optimization of a transcritical CO2 heat pump cycle for simultaneous cooling and heating applications. Int J Refrig, 2004, 27: 830-838 CrossRef Google Scholar

[15] Bhattacharyya S, Mukhopadhyay S, Kumar A, et al. Optimization of a CO2–C3H8 cascade system for refrigeration and heating. Int J Refrig, 2005, 28: 1284-1292 CrossRef Google Scholar

[16] Bhattacharyya S, Mukhopadhyay S, Sarkar J. CO2-C3H8 cascade refrigeration-heat pump system: Heat exchanger inventory optimization and its numerical verification. Int J Refrig, 2008, 31: 1207-1213 CrossRef Google Scholar

[17] Dubey A M, Kumar S, Agrawal G D. Thermodynamic analysis of a transcritical CO2/propylene (R744-R1270) cascade system for cooling and heating applications. Energy Conv Manage, 2014, 86: 774-783 CrossRef Google Scholar

[18] Yu P C. Refrigerant selection for sustainable future. ASHRAE J, 2007-2008: 22–26. Google Scholar

[19] Billiard F. Selection of refrigerants on a per-application basis: Trends. Int Inst Refrig, 2002, 1(2005): 7. Google Scholar

[20] Bansal P, Jain S. Cascade systems: Past, present, and future. Trans ASHRAE, 2007, 113: 245–252. Google Scholar

[21] Lommers C A. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Industry Refrigerant Selection Guide-2003. 7th Ed. Melbourne Vic: Australian Institute of Refrigeration Air Conditioning and Heating Inc. (AIRAH), 2003. Google Scholar

[22] Xu X. Refrigerant selection in room air conditioning industry for sustainable development. Dissertation of Masteral Degree. Tokyo: The University of Tokyo, 2012. Google Scholar

[23] Bensafi A, Thonon B. Transcritical R744 (CO2) Heat Pumps Technician’s Manual. Villeurbanne Cedex-France: Centre Technique Des Industries Aérauliques Et Thermiques, 2007. Google Scholar

[24] Dopazo J A, Fernández-Seara J. Experimental evaluation of a cascade refrigeration system prototype with CO2 and NH3 for freezing process applications. Int J Refrig, 2011, 34: 257-267 CrossRef Google Scholar

[25] Sarker J, Bhattacharyya S, Lal A. Selection of suitable natural refrigerants pairs for cascade refrigeration system. P I Mech Eng A-J Pow, 2013, 227: 612–622. Google Scholar

[26] Ouadha A, En-Nacer M, Imine O, er al. Exergy analysis and comparision of two-stage and cascade refrigeration cycles using natural refrigerants. In: Proceedings of the Heat-SET, Heat Transfer in Components and systems for sustainable Energy Technologies Conference. Le Bourget du Lac, France, 2007. Google Scholar

[27] Messineo A. R744-R717 cascade refrigeration system: Performance evaluation compared with a HFC two-stage system. Energy Procedia, 2012, 14: 56-65 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Jadhav J S, Apte A D. Review of cascade refrigeration system with different refrigerant pairs. Int J Innov Eng Res Technol, 2015, 2: 74–81. Google Scholar

[29] Chae J H, Choi J M. Evaluation of the impacts of high stage refrigerant charge on cascade heat pump performance. Renew Energy, 2015, 79: 66-71 CrossRef Google Scholar

[30] Kim D H, Park H S, Kim M S. The effect of the refrigerant charge amount on single and cascade cycle heat pump systems. Int J Refrig, 2014, 40: 254-268 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Kim D H, Park H S, Kim M S. Characteristics of R134a/R410A cascade heat pump and optimization. In: Proceedings of the International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference. West Lafayette, IN, 2012. Google Scholar

[32] Kilicarslan A, Hosoz M. Energy and irreversibility analysis of a cascade refrigeration system for various refrigerant couples. Energ Conv Manage, 2010, 51: 2947-2954 CrossRef Google Scholar

[33] Bingming W, Huagen W, Jianfeng L, et al. Experimental investigation on the performance of NH3/CO2 cascade refrigeration system with twin-screw compressor. Int J Refrig, 2009, 32: 1358-1365 CrossRef Google Scholar

[34] Choi J M, Kim Y C. The effects of improper refrigerant charge on the performance of a heat pump with an electronic expansion valve and capillary tube. Energy, 2002, 27: 391-404 CrossRef Google Scholar

[35] Park H, Kim D H, Kim M S. Thermodynamic analysis of optimal intermediate temperatures in R134a-R410A cascade refrigeration systems and its experimental verification. Appl Thermal Eng, 2013, 54: 319-327 CrossRef Google Scholar

[36] Ratts E B, Brown J S. A generalized analysis for cascading single fluid vapor compression refrigeration cycles using an entropy generation minimization method. Int J Refrig, 2000, 23: 353-365 CrossRef Google Scholar

[37] Agnew B, Ameli S M. A finite time analysis of a cascade refrigeration system using alternative refrigerants. Appl Thermal Eng, 2004, 24: 2557-2565 CrossRef Google Scholar

[38] Ma M, Yu J, Wang X. Performance evaluation and optimal configuration analysis of a CO2/NH3 cascade refrigeration system with falling film evaporator-condenser. Energy Conv Manage, 2014, 79: 224-231 CrossRef Google Scholar

[39] Parekh A D, Tailor P R. Thermodynamic analysis of R507A-R23 cascade refrigeration system. Int Scho Sci Res Innov, 2011, 5: 1919–1923. Google Scholar

[40] Fiora J J, Lima C U S, Junior V S. Theoritic-experimental evaluation of a cascade refrigeration system for low temperature applications using the pair R22/R404A. Therm Eng, 2012, 11: 7–14. Google Scholar

[41] Lee T S, Liu C H, Chen T W. Thermodynamic analysis of optimal condensing temperature of cascade-condenser in CO2/NH3 cascade refrigeration systems. Int J Refrig, 2006, 29: 1100-1108 CrossRef Google Scholar

[42] Lee T S, Liu C H, Chen T W. Thermodynamic analysis of optimum condensing temperature of cascade condenser for CO2/NH3 cascade refrigeration systems. In: IIR Ammonia Refrigeration Conference. Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia, 2005. Google Scholar

[43] Getu H M, Bansal P K. Thermodynamic analysis of an R744–R717 cascade refrigeration system. Int J Refrig, 2008, 31: 45-54 CrossRef Google Scholar

[44] Sachdeva G, Jain V, Kachhwaha S S. Performance study of cascade refrigeration system using alternative refrigerants. Int Scho Sci Res Innov, 2014, 8: 522–528. Google Scholar

[45] Alberto Dopazo J, Fernández-Seara J, Sieres J, et al. Theoretical analysis of a CO2-NH3 cascade refrigeration system for cooling applications at low temperatures. Appl Thermal Eng, 2009, 29: 1577-1583 CrossRef Google Scholar

[46] Kilicarslan A. An experimental investigation of a different type vapor compression cascade refrigeration system. Appl Thermal Eng, 2004, 24: 2611-2626 CrossRef Google Scholar

[47] Soltani R, Dincer I, Rosen M A. Comparative performance evaluation of cascaded air-source hydronic heat pumps. Energy Conv Manage, 2015, 89: 577-587 CrossRef Google Scholar

[48] Swanson A G, Carlson A C. Performance and energy savings of variable refrigerant technology in cold weather climates. Conservation Applied Research and Development Final Report. Minnesota Department of Commerce, Division if Energy Resources, Minnesota, USA, 2015. Google Scholar

[49] Jung H W, Kang H, Chung H, et al. Performance optimization of a cascade multi-functional heat pump in various operation modes. Int J Refrig, 2014, 42: 57-68 CrossRef Google Scholar

[50] Tassou S A, Qureshi T Q. Comparative performance evaluation of positive displacement compressors in variable-speed refrigeration applications. Int J Refrig, 1998, 21: 29-41 CrossRef Google Scholar

[51] Adhikari R S, Aste N, Manfren M, et al. Energy savings through variable speed compressor heat pump systems. Energy Procedia, 2012, 14: 1337-1342 CrossRef Google Scholar

[52] Ekren O, Celik S, Noble B, et al. Performance evaluation of a variable speed DC compressor. Int J Refrig, 2013, 36: 745-757 CrossRef Google Scholar

[53] Arouca L B P, Almeida A G S, Almeida F S, et al. Exergy analysis of cascade refrigeration system for low temperatures using ecological fluids. In: Proceedings of 22nd International Congress of Mechanical Engineering. Ribeirão Preto, SP, 2013. 10221–10230. Google Scholar

[54] Bhattacharyya S, Bose S, Sarkar J. Exergy maximization of cascade refrigeration cycles and its numerical verification for a transcritical CO2-C3H8 system. Int J Refrig, 2007, 30: 624-632 CrossRef Google Scholar

[55] Yilmaz B, Erdonmez N, Sevindir M K, Mancuhan E. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of cascade condensing temperature of a CO2 (R744)/R404A cascade refrigeration system. In: International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference. West Lafayette, IN: Herrick Laboratories, Purdue University, 2014. Google Scholar

[56] Mafi M, Naeynian S M M, Amidpour M. Exergy analysis of multistage cascade low temperature refrigeration systems used in olefin plants. Int J Refrig, 2009, 32: 279-294 CrossRef Google Scholar

[57] Pereira C, Lequisiga D. Technical evaluation of C3-MR and cascade cycle on natural gas liquefaction process. Int J Chem Eng Appl, 2014, 5: 451–456. Google Scholar

[58] Refrigeration technology for sports and leisure facilities. GEA Refrigeration Technologies. http://www.gea.com/en/binaries/Ap_Leisure_150dpi_A4Size_4C_US_tcm11-18513.pdf. Google Scholar

[59] Sharma V, Fricke B, Bansal P. Comparative analysis of various CO2 configurations in supermarket refrigeration systems. Int J Refrig, 2014, 46: 86-99 CrossRef Google Scholar

[60] Baxter V D. IEA annex 26: Advanced supermarket refrigeration/heat recovery system. IEA Annex 26 Final Report. Canada-Denmark-Sweden-United Kingdom-United States, 2003. Google Scholar

[61] Sánchez D, Llopis R, Cabello R, et al. Conversion of a direct to an indirect commercial (HFC134a/CO2) cascade refrigeration system: Energy impact analysis. Int J Refrig, 2017, 73: 183-199 CrossRef Google Scholar

[62] Yoon J I, Lee H S, Oh S T, et al. Characteristics of cascade and C3MR cycle on natural gas liquefaction process. Int Scho Sci Res Innov, 2009, 59: 620–624. Google Scholar

[63] Hwang I S, Lee Y L. Cascade heat pump dryer performance improvement using a solar collector. ARPN J Eng Appl Sci, 2015, 10: 782–787. Google Scholar

[64] Kondou C, Koyama S. Thermodynamic assessment of high-temperature heat pumps using Low-GWP HFO refrigerants for heat recovery. Int J Refrig, 2015, 53: 126-141 CrossRef Google Scholar

[65] IEA Annex 35: Applications of Industrial heat pumps. IEA Heat pump programme Annex 35. Final Report. Boras, Sweden, 2014. Google Scholar

[66] Du K, Zhang S, Xu W, et al. A study on the cycle characteristics of an auto-cascade refrigeration system. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci, 2009, 33: 240-245 CrossRef Google Scholar

[67] Zhang J, Xu Q. Cascade refrigeration system synthesis based on exergy analysis. Comp Chem Eng, 2011, 35: 1901-1914 CrossRef Google Scholar

[68] Fernández-Seara J, Sieres J, Vázquez M. Compression-absorption cascade refrigeration system. Appl Thermal Eng, 2006, 26: 502-512 CrossRef Google Scholar

[69] Park N, Woo H S, Ha J C, et al. On the optimal water discharge temperature of air-to-water heat pump for space heating and domestic hot water. In: Proceedings of International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference. West Lafayette, IN, 2010. 2497. Google Scholar

[70] Kaushik S C, Kumar P, Jain S. Performance evaluation of irreversible cascaded refrigeration and heat pump cycles. Energy Conv Manage, 2002, 43: 2405-2424 CrossRef Google Scholar

[71] Аndriy R. Thermodynamic analysis of cycles of the cascade heat pump plant. In: Proceedings of the Thirty-sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford, California, 2011. Google Scholar

[72] Rezayan O, Behbahaninia A. Thermoeconomic optimization and exergy analysis of CO2/NH3 cascade refrigeration systems. Energy, 2011, 36: 888-895 CrossRef Google Scholar

[73] Wu J, Yang Z, Wu Q, et al. Transient behavior and dynamic performance of cascade heat pump water heater with thermal storage system. Appl Energy, 2012, 91: 187-196 CrossRef Google Scholar

[74] Madani H, Claesson J, Lundqvist P. Capacity control in ground source heat pump systems part II: Comparative analysis between on/off controlled and variable capacity systems. Int J Refrig, 2011, 34: 1934-1942 CrossRef Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Schematic diagram of cascade heat pump unit.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Schematic diagram of cascade heat pump with internal heat exchangers.

  • Figure 3

    Operating parameters of the cascade heat pump.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Three-stage cascade refrigeration system for natural gas liquefaction [57].

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Schematic of a low and medium temperature supermarket cascade refrigeration system [61].

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Schematic diagram of cascade heat pump heat recovery system used in a Canadian poultry processing plant [65].

  • Table 1   Thermophysical properties of selected refrigerants

    Refrigerant

    Molar mass (kg/kmol)

    Freezing point (°C)

    Boiling point at 1 atm (°C)

    Critical temperature (°C)

    Critical pressure (kPa, abs)

    R125

    120.2

    −100.63

    −48.14

    66.2

    3629

    R134a

    102.03

    −103.3

    −26.07

    101.1

    4059

    R404A

    97.60

    −46.6

    72.1

    3753

    R407A

    90.11

    −45.2

    81.9

    4487

    R407B

    102.94

    −46.8

    74.4

    4083

    R407C

    86.20

    −43.8

    86.1

    4634

    R410A

    72.59

    −51.6

    70.2

    4770

    R413A

    103.95

    −29.3

    101.4

    4240

    R417A

    106.70

    −41.8

    89.9

    4096

    R507A

    98.86

    −47.1

    70.8

    3715

    R170

    30.07

    −182.8

    −88.6

    32.2

    4872

    R290

    44.10

    −187.3

    −42.1

    96.7

    4248

    R600

    58.12

    −138.3

    −0.5

    152.0

    3796

    R600a

    58.12

    −159.6

    −11.6

    134.7

    3640

    R717

    17.03

    −77.7

    −33.3

    132.5

    11330

    R744

    44.01

    −56.6

    −78.4

    31.1

    7384

    R1270

    42.08

    −185.2

    −47.7

    92.4

    4665

  • Table 2   Environmental impacts of selected refrigerants

    Refrigerant

    ODP

    GWP

    20 a; 100 a; 500 a

    Atmospheric life time years

    R125

    0.0

    5900; 3400; 1100

    29

    R134a

    0.0

    3300; 1300; 400

    14

    R404A

    0.0

    5600; 3800; 1300

    R407A

    0.0

    4000; 2000; 600

    29

    R407B

    0.0

    5000; 2700; 900

    R407C

    0.0

    3600; 1700; 500

    R410A

    0.0

    3900; 2000; 600

    29

    R413A

    0.0

    3400; 1900; 1500

    R417A

    0.0

    4400; 2200; 700

    R507A

    0.0

    5700; 3900; 1400

    R170

    0.0

    3; 3; 3

    R290

    0.0

    3; 3; 3

    R600

    0.0

    3; 3; 3

    R600a

    0.0

    3; 3; 3

    R717

    0.0

    0; 0; 0

    R744

    0.0

    1; 1; 1

    R1270

    0.0

    3; 3; 3

  • Table 3   Refrigerant pairs for cascade heat pumps

    Refrigerant (HS)

    Refrigerant (LS)

    TH,COND (°C)

    TL,EVAP (°C)

    Intermediate temperature (°C)

    COP

    Reference

    R134a

    R410A

    40–55

    −15–7

    18–29

    1.34–3.2

    [5,8,10,29–31]

    R134a

    R134a

    45

    −5

    2

    [6]

    R404a

    R23

    40

    −60

    0.9

    [32]

    R152a

    R23

    40

    −60

    1.27

    [32]

    R134a

    R23

    40

    −60

    1.2

    [32]

    R717

    R1270

    25–55

    −25 to −45

    1.273–3.044

    [18]

    R717

    R170

    25–55

    −55 to −85

    0.635–1.537

    [18]

    R1270

    R170

    25–55

    −65 to −85

    0.663–1.253

    [18]

    R1270

    R744

    25–55

    −25 to −55

    0.9082–2.829

    [18]

    R1270

    R1150

    25–55

    −75 to −85

    0.5388–1.014

    [18]

    R717

    R744

    30–40

    −30 to −50

    0.9–1.8

    [32,33]

    R290

    R744

    20–40

    −35

    1.63

    [33]

    R717

    R23

    40

    −60

    1.35

    [32]

    R290

    R23

    40

    −60

    1.1

    [32]

    R744

    R125

    40

    −70

    −30

    1.08

    [11]

    R744

    R41

    40

    −70

    −30

    0.92

    [11]

    R744

    R23

    40

    −70

    −30

    0.92

    [11]

    R744

    R32

    40

    −70

    −30

    1.04

    [11]

    R744

    R410A

    20–40

    −35

    −8.07

    1.61

    [12]

    R744

    R134a

    20–40

    −35

    −8.72

    1.65

    [12]

    R744

    R404A

    20–40

    −35

    −2.77

    1.53

    [12]

  • Table 4   Effect of operating and design parameters on performance of cascade heat pump

    Parameter

    Meaning

    Effect on cascade heat pump

    Intermediate temperature [8,14]

    The low stage condensing temperature and high stage evaporating temperature

    Affects pressure ratio and compressor isentropic efficiency

    Temperature difference in cascade heat exchanger/overlap temperature [13,15,36]

    Difference between the low stage condensing temperature and high stage evaporating temperature

    Affects the intermediate temperature;

    Small values improves system performance;

    Larger values decreases system performance.

    Low stage evaporating temperature [33]

    Temperature corresponding to the saturation pressure of the evaporator at the low stage cycle

    Affects capacity, power consumption and intermediate temperature of the system

    Low stage condensing temperature [24,36,41]

    Temperature corresponding to the saturation pressure of the condenser at the low stage cycle

    Affects the heat transfer to the high stage cycle;

    Increased values increases low stage power consumption and decreases high stage power consumption.

    High stage evaporating temperature [40,43,44]

    Temperature corresponding to the saturation pressure of the evaporator at the high stage cycle

    Increased value;

    Decreases mass flow rate between low stage and high stage cycles;

    Increased values increases COP of high stage cycle;

    Increased values decreases COP of low stage cycle.

    High stage condensing temperature [5,6]

    Temperature corresponding to the saturation pressure of the condenser at the high stage cycle

    Affects heating capacity of the system and refrigerant mass flow of the high stage cycle;

    Affected by high stage secondary fluid flow rate.

    Degree of superheat [27,33,43]

    Temperature of the vapor refrigerant above its saturation temperature

    Affects refrigerant flow to the compressor;

    Has little negative effect on system performance.

    Degree of subcooling [9,43]

    Temperature of the liquid refrigerant below its saturation temperature

    Affected by refrigerant charge;

    High subcooling increases refrigerant mass flow rate;

    Increase in subcooling increases COP of cascade systems.

  • Table 5   Research trend of cascade heat pumps

    Researchers

    Year

    Refrigeration/cooling

    Heating and hot water

    Simultaneous refrigeration and heating

    Agnew and Ameli [37]

    2004

     √

    Ratts and Brown [36]

    2000

     √

    Du et al. [66]

    2009

     √

    Kilicarslan [46]

    2004

     √

    Nicola et al. [11]

    2005

     √

    Jeong and Choi [10]

    2014

    Sarkar et al. [14]

    2004

    √

    Zhang and Xu [67]

    2011

    √

    Bhattacharyya et al. [16]

    2008

     √

    Soltani et al. [47]

    2015

    √

    Hosoz [6]

    2005

     √

    Fernández-Seara et al. [68]

    2006

     √

    Kilicarslan and Hosoz [32]

    2010

     √

    Chae and Choi [29]

    2014

     √

    Mafi et al. [56]

    2009

     √

    Bhattacharyya et al. [54]

    2007

     √

    Dopazo and Fernandez-Seara [24]

    2011

     √

    Bingming et al. [33]

    2009

     √

    Corberan et al. [9]

    2011

     √

    Park et al. [69]

    2010

     √

    Kim et al. [8]

    2013

     √

    Bhattacharyya et al. [15]

    2005

    √

    Jung et al. [5]

    2013

     √

    Messineo and Panno [12]

    2012

    √

    Kaushik et al. [70]

    2002

     √

    Jung et al. [49]

    2014

     √

    Sachdeva et al. [44]

    2014

    √

    Messineo [27]

    2012

     √

    Jadhav and Apte [28]

    2015

     √

    Sarkar et al. [25]

    2013

     √

    Kim et al. [8]

    2014

     √

    Fiori et al. [40]

    2012

     √

    Dopazo et al. [45]

    2009

     √

    Bhattacharyya et al. [13]

    2009

     √

    Dubey et al. [17]

    2014

     √

    Getu and Bansal [43]

    2008

     √

    Andriy [71]

    2011

     √

    Lee et al. [41]

    2006

     √

    Park et al. [35]

    2013

     √

    Parekh and Tailor [39]

    2011

     √

    Rezeyan and Behbahaninia [72]

    2011

     √

    Wu et al. [73]

    2012

    √

Copyright 2020 Science China Press Co., Ltd. 《中国科学》杂志社有限责任公司 版权所有

京ICP备17057255号       京公网安备11010102003388号