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SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences, Volume 62 , Issue 4 : 649-664(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11431-018-9362-3

A generalized plasticity model for the stress-strain and creep behavior of rockfill materials

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  • ReceivedJun 8, 2018
  • AcceptedSep 19, 2018
  • PublishedFeb 21, 2019

Abstract

The generalized plasticity constitutive equations that simulate, in a unified manner, the stress-strain response and the creep behavior of rockfill materials are derived using the concept of elastoplasticity. A single yield surface is assumed to capture the onset of plastic strains with, however, two separate potential functions for the stress-induced plastic strains and the creep strains, respectively. The involved tensors and scalars are then specified directly, following the generalized plasticity method, to substantiate the constitutive equations. The model thus obtained is verified using triaxial compression experiments, true triaxial experiments and triaxial creep experiments. The effectiveness of the model is also demonstrated by a successful application in studying the behavior of a high concrete face rockfill dam (CFRD). It is found that for a high CFRD with a long construction period, neglecting the creep of rockfill materials during construction results in an underestimation of the deformation of the dam. The deformation and stress of the concrete slabs may also be considerably underestimated.


Funded by

the National Key Research and Development Program of China(Grant,No.,2017YFC0404806)

and the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant,Nos.,51779152,&,51539006)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFC0404806), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51779152, 51539006).


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Illustration of the extended yield surface.

  • Figure 2

    Stress dilatancy data in triaxial compression and extension tests.

  • Figure 3

    Comparison of model predictions with experimental data from triaxial compression experiments. (a) Rockfill 1; (b) rockfill 2.

  • Figure 4

    Model predictions vs. triaxial compression and extension experiments. (a) Triaxial compression; (b) triaxial extension.

  • Figure 5

    Comparison of model predictions with true triaxial experiments. (a) σ3=150 kPa; (b) σ3=300 kPa; (c) σ3=400 kPa.

  • Figure 6

    Model predictions vs. creep experiments under isotropic compression stress states. (a) εv vs. t; (b) εv,f vs. σ3/pa.

  • Figure 7

    Model predictions vs. creep experiments under shear stress states. (a) η/Mf = 0.4; (b) η/Mf = 0.8.

  • Figure 8

    Finite element mesh of the Shuibuya CFRD.

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) Construction and impounding processes of the Shuibuya CFRD.

  • Figure 10

    (Color online) Predicted settlement vs. measured settlement of the 0+212.0 mm section.

  • Figure 11

    (Color online) Contours of the horizontal and vertical displacements in 0+212.0 section: (a) with creep; (b) without creep.

  • Figure 12

    (Color online) Contours of the deformation of concrete slabs: (a) with creep; (b) without creep.

  • Figure 13

    (Color online) Contours of the normal stresses within the concrete slabs: (a) with creep; (b) without creep.

  • Figure a1

    Geometrical interpretations of eq. (a2). (a) Traditional g(θ) method; (b) stress transformation approach.

  • Table 1   Basic model parameters of rockfill 1 and rockfill 2

    Material

    φ0 (°)

    Δφ (°)

    d0

    ψ0 (°)

    Δψ (°)

    k

    n

    α

    kau

    ve

    Rockfill 1

    50.1

    6.3

    1.82

    46.1

    3.5

    1214

    0.26

    0.55

    2428

    0.3

    Rockfill 2

    53.2

    9.0

    2.20

    50.5

    6.3

    879

    0.28

    0.50

    1758

    0.3

  •    Definition of mobilized friction angle in three failure criteria

    Criterion

    Failure equation

    Mobilized friction angle

    Mohr-Coulomb

    σ1σ3σ1+σ3=sinφ

    sinφm=σ1σ3σ1+σ3

    Matsuoka-Nakai

    I1I2I3=9sin2φ1sin2φ

    sinφm=I1I29I3I1I2I3

    Lade

    I13I3=(3sinφ)3(1+sinφ)(1sinφ)2

    sinφm=xm3xm1

    I1=σ1+σ2+σ3; I2=σ1·σ2+σ2·σ3+σ1·σ3; I3=σ1·σ2·σ3.

  • Table 2   Basic model parameters of rockfill 3

    Material

    φ0 (°)

    Δφ (°)

    d0

    ψ0 (°)

    Δψ (°)

    k

    n

    α

    kau

    ve

    Rockfill 3

    55.4

    9.6

    2.81

    51.2

    7.3

    1100

    0.35

    0.7

    2200

    0.20

  • Table 3   Creep model parameters of rockfill 4

    Material

    c1 (%)

    m1

    c2 (%)

    m2

    c3 (%)

    m3

    ω (h)

    Rockfill 4

    0.0963

    0.39

    0.0047

    0.98

    0.0416

    0.60

    2.5

  • Table 4   Basic model parameters of rockfills used in Shuibuya CFRD

    Material

    φ0 (°)

    Δφ (°)

    d0

    ψ0 (°)

    Δψ (°)

    k

    n

    α

    kau

    ve

    2A & 3A

    56.0

    10.5

    1.85

    51.5

    6.8

    1000

    0.38

    1.22

    2000

    0.3

    3B &3D

    54.7

    10.4

    1.92

    49.4

    6.4

    992

    0.33

    1.50

    1824

    0.3

    3C

    51.3

    10.4

    2.03

    46.2

    6.3

    701

    0.25

    1.35

    1402

    0.3

  • Table 5   Creep model parameters of rockfills used in Shuibuya CFRD

    Material

    c1 (%)

    m1

    c2 (%)

    m2

    c3 (%)

    m3

    ω (month)

    2A & 3A

    0.16

    0.45

    0.006

    0.88

    0.032

    0.66

    5.5

    3B &3D

    0.16

    0.45

    0.006

    0.88

    0.032

    0.66

    5.5

    3C

    0.18

    0.43

    0.007

    0.90

    0.035

    0.55

    5.5

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