SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 6: 895-902(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11431-018-9436-6

Nanocomposites for electronic applications that can be embedded for textiles and wearables

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  • ReceivedOct 23, 2018
  • AcceptedJan 9, 2019
  • PublishedMay 7, 2019


In the present review, we have selected advances in electrospinning nanofibers that we envision to be embedded in textiles and wearables. These nanofibers have been proven to be excellent options for applications such as power generation, sensing, and communication. Their similitude with already known woven meshes makes these fibers perfect for electronically active textiles. These fibers offer well known characteristics such as mechanical flexibility, high surface area-to-volume ratio, light weight and can be tuned by carefully selecting the active materials in the precursor solution. Here we will discuss polymers with electroactive, piezoelectric, triboelectric and their composites that have been used in fiber structures by using the electrospinning technique.

Funded by

the Florida Education Fund’s McKnight Doctoral Fellowship Program


the Lloyd’s Register Foundation


and the NUS Hybrid-Integrated Flexible(Stretchable)


Authors thank the Florida Education Fund’s McKnight Doctoral Fellowship Program, USA, Lloyd's Register Foundation, UK (Grant No. R265000553597) and NUS Hybrid-Integrated Flexible (Stretchable) Electronic Systems Program (Grant No. R265000628133) for research support.


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Fibers of PLA/PANi-CSA showing the rectification of an input (i/p) voltage of 100 Hz with 5 V peak-peak sine wave. The output (o/p) voltage shows the clipped negative cycle as part of the rectification. Inset: (left) representation of the PLA/PANi-CSA nanofibers device for the diode characterization; (right) electric circuit in series for the dual trace oscilloscope (i/p), the diode and the resistor (o/p) [15].

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Single nanofiber of PLA/PANi-CSA for aliphatic alcohol vapor sensing. Inset: sensing plots for methanol (top), ethanol (middle) and iso-propanol (bottom) [16].

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) P3HT based UV tunable diode. Inset: device structure for characterization (top). Characterization sequence of UV radiation and annealing process (bottom) [17].

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) (a) Sketch of organic semiconducting nanowires; (b) transfer curves of the designed devices; (c) max drain current as function of the nanowires; (d) transmission electron microscopy and its elemental mapping by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; (e) length-directional stretching; (f) width-directional stretching; (g) illustration of the deformable FET with straight nano-wires and dielectric with length and width directional stretching [20].

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) (a) Schematic of: P3HT coating on the fibers, with pre-patterned source-drain gaps (top-left) and weaving transistors with different fibers (bottom); (b) optical image of two transistors in a woven matrix; (c) optical image with a close-up of a fiber transistor showing the source, gate and drain as well as a visible pre-patterned transistor gap on the right [22].

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Laser confocal microscopy images of 5 wt% poly(fluorene) derivative/PMMA blend electrospun nanofibers with (a) PFO, (b) PFQ, (c) PFBT, (d) PFTP [27].

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) (a) Schematic of coaxial electrospinning; (b) schematic of white-light emitting porous fiber; (c) SEM image of PLA fiber; (d) TEM image of PLA fiber; (e) diameter distribution of PLA fibers [30].

  • Figure 8

    (a), (b) TEM images of a single nanofiber from the Co3O4-CNFs2 sample; (c), (d) HRTEM images of a single Co3O4 hollow NP, and (e) the corresponding SAED pattern [31].

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) Working mechanism under pressing releasing mechanical force and textile like mesh [40].

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