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SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences, Volume 62 , Issue 8 : 1357-1364(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11431-018-9491-6

On stress-induced voltage hysteresis in lithium ion batteries: Impacts of surface effects and interparticle compression

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  • ReceivedOct 31, 2018
  • AcceptedMar 11, 2019
  • PublishedJun 27, 2019

Abstract

Application of silicon in high capacity electrodes of lithium ion battery suffers from stress effects and, in turn, affects voltage performance of battery. This paper established a reaction-diffusion-stress coupled model and investigated the stress induced voltage hysteresis with consideration of diffusion induced stress, surface effects and interparticle compression. It was found stress and stress induced voltage hysteresis depended on particle size. In big particles, diffusion induced stress is dominant and leads to significant hysteresis in both stress and voltage, indicating energy dissipation due to stress effects. In small particles, e.g., radius of dozens nanometers, diffusion induced stress was negligible while surface effects played dominant role, leading to nearly vanished voltage hysteresis shifting away from equilibrium potential. According to calculation, particle sizes around 100 nm are appropriate choice for electrode design as both diffusion induced stress and surface effects are insignificant. Finally, interparticle compression pushed the stress hysteresis to compressive side and led to early termination of lithiation at cut-off voltage. Denser electrode would enhance this effect. It indicated that there must be a limit of mixing ratio of silicon because higher interparticle compressive stress due to more introduced silicon would impede the battery from fully charged.


Funded by

SONG YiCheng

LU Bo and ZHANG JunQian gratefully acknowledge the financial supports of the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant,Nos.,11672170,11332005,11702166)

the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai(Grant,No.,16ZR1412200)

and the Advanced Engineering Programme Cluster funding.


Acknowledgment

SONG YiCheng, LU Bo and ZHANG JunQian gratefully acknowledge the financial supports of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11672170, 11332005, 11702166), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (Grant No. 16ZR1412200). Soh A K acknowledges the support provided by the 2017 Monash University Malaysia Strategic Large Grant Scheme (Grant No. LG-2017-04-ENG), and the Advanced Engineering Programme Cluster funding.


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) The multi-scale hierarchical electrode structure in lithium ion battery.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Open-circuit potential of silicon electrode proposed by Sethuraman et al. [18]. The dots were the open-circuit potentials measured after very long time relaxation, the solid line was obtained under a C/8 charge-discharge operation, and the dashed line is the fitting function.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Effects of diffusion induced stress on voltage hysteresis. (a) Distribution of concentration of lithium ions within electrode particle during lithiation and delithiation; (b) variation of hydrostatic stresses in the surface layers of particles of different radius during a cycle; (c) voltage hysteresis with consideration of the diffusion induced stresses; (d) dependence of voltage gap between lithiation and delithiation on electrode size, the gap is obtained from the voltage hysteresis plot when normalized capacity is 50%.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Evolution of hydrostatic stress at particle surface due to surface effects. The dark line indicates the mean stress in a cycle and the bar defines the range. The three subplots are evolutions of surface stress due to surface effects in one cycle.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Impacts of surface effects on voltage hysteresis. (a) Evolution of surface stresses in a cycle of charge and discharge with consideration of both diffusion induced stress and surface effects; (b) voltage hysteresis with consideration of the surface effects. The C-rate is 1C for all cases.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Absolute values of the surface stress due to surface effects and the surface stress by diffusion induced stress.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) Impacts of interparticle compression. (a) Stress hysteresis for electrodes with different porosity ratio; (b) voltage hysteresis for electrodes with different porosity ratio. p is porosity of electrode structure.

  • Table 1   Material properties of active material

    E (GPa)

    ν

    cmax (mol m–3)

    Ω (m3 mol–1)

    D (m2 s–1)

    100 [23]

    0.27

    3.13×105 [24]

    4.26×10–6 [13]

    2×10–16 [25]

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