logo

SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 6: 919-930(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11431-018-9508-3

Progress in modification of silk fibroin fiber

More info
  • ReceivedNov 14, 2018
  • AcceptedApr 9, 2019
  • PublishedMay 15, 2019

Abstract

Silk fibroin fiber is a natural protein fiber. It is moisturizing, breathable, soft and skin-friendly. However, unmodified silk fibroin fiber is easy to be oxidized and faded. In this paper, the recent progress in modification of silk fibroin fiber is introduced, including the composite modification, feeding modification, genetic engineering modification, spinning technology and regulating the physiological environment modification. Simultaneously, the future development trend for the modification of silk fibroin fiber is also prospected.


Funded by

the National High-tech R&D Program(863,Program)

and Shanghai Municipal Commission of Economy and Information.


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National High-tech R&D Program (863 Program) (Grant No. 2015AA033905), and Shanghai Municipal Commission of Economy and Information.


References

[1] Liu B, Song Y, Jin L, et al. Silk structure and degradation. Colloids Surfs B-Biointerfaces, 2015, 131: 122-128 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[2] Yang M Y. Silk-based biomaterials. Microsc Res Tech, 2017, 80: 269–271. Google Scholar

[3] Johanna M, Swati M, Sourabh G, et al. Silk fibroin as biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. Acta Biomater, 2016, 31: 1–16. Google Scholar

[4] Qi Y, Wang H, Wei K, et al. A review of structure construction of silk fibroin biomaterials from single structures to multi-level structures. Int J Mol Sci, 2017, 18: 237-258 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[5] Zhang P, Lan J, Wang Y, et al. Luminescent golden silk and fabric through in situ chemically coating pristine-silk with gold nanoclusters. Biomaterials, 2015, 36: 26-32 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[6] Tang B, Sun L, Kaur J, et al. In-situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles for multifunctionalization of silk fabrics. Dyes Pigments, 2014, 103: 183-190 CrossRef Google Scholar

[7] Yu D, Kang G, Tian W, et al. Preparation of conductive silk fabric with antibacterial properties by electroless silver plating. Appl Surf Sci, 2015, 357: 1157-1162 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[8] Lu Z, Meng M, Jiang Y, et al. UV-assisted in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles on silk fibers for antibacterial applications. Colloids Surfs A-Physicochem Eng Aspects, 2014, 447: 1-7 CrossRef Google Scholar

[9] Meng M, He H, Xiao J, et al. Controllable in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles on multilayered film-coated silk fibers for antibacterial application. J Colloid Interface Sci, 2016, 461: 369-375 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[10] Xu S, Song J, Zhu C, et al. Graphene oxide-encapsulated Ag nanoparticle-coated silk fibers with hierarchical coaxial cable structure fabricated by the molecule-directed self-assembly. Mater Lett, 2017, 188: 215-219 CrossRef Google Scholar

[11] Xu S, Chen S, Zhang F, et al. Preparation and controlled coating of hydroxyl-modified silver nanoparticles on silk fibers through intermolecular interaction-induced self-assembly. Mater Des, 2016, 95: 107-118 CrossRef Google Scholar

[12] Xu S, Song J, Morikawa H, et al. Fabrication of hierarchical structured Fe3O4 and Ag nanoparticles dual-coated silk fibers through electrostatic self-assembly. Mater Lett, 2016, 164: 274-277 CrossRef Google Scholar

[13] Xie Q, Xu Z, Hu B, et al. Preparation of a novel silk microfiber covered by AgCl nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity. Microsc Res Tech, 2017, 80: 272-279 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[14] Abbasi A R, Noori N, Azadbakht A, et al. Dense coating of surface mounted Cu2O nanoparticles upon silk fibers under ultrasound irradiation with antibacterial activity. J Iran Chem Soc, 2016, 13: 1273-1281 CrossRef Google Scholar

[15] Liao Y F, Zhang D S, Chen Y Y, et al. Fabrication of antibacterial and UV protective silk fabrics via in situ generating ZnO nanoparticles by hyperbranched polymer. Adv Mater Res, 2013, 796: 374-379 CrossRef Google Scholar

[16] Lu Z, Mao C, Meng M, et al. Fabrication of CeO2 nanoparticle-modified silk for UV protection and antibacterial applications. J Colloid Interface Sci, 2014, 435: 8-14 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[17] Zhang W, Zhang D, Chen Y, et al. Hyperbranched polymer functional TiO2 nanoparticles: Synthesis and its application for the anti-UV finishing of silk fabric. Fibers Polym, 2015, 16: 503-509 CrossRef Google Scholar

[18] Xiao X, Liu X, Chen F, et al. Highly anti-UV properties of silk fiber with uniform and conformal nanoscale TiO2 coatings via atomic layer deposition. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2015, 7: 21326-21333 CrossRef Google Scholar

[19] Yang L, Jiang H, Shen Y, et al. Antireflection coating on silk fabric fabricated from reactive silica nanoparticles and its deepening color performance. J Sol-Gel Sci Tech, 2015, 74: 488-498 CrossRef Google Scholar

[20] Zhou J, Zhao Z, Hu R, et al. Magnetic silk fabrics through swelling-fixing method with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Surf Coatings Tech, 2018, 342: 23-28 CrossRef Google Scholar

[21] Lin N, Meng Z, Toh G W, et al. Engineering of fluorescent emission of silk fibroin composite materials by material assembly. Small, 2015, 11: 1205-1214 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[22] Song Y, Lin Z, Kong L, et al. Meso-functionalization of silk fibroin by upconversion fluorescence and near infrared in vivo biosensing. Adv Funct Mater, 2017, 27: 1700628 CrossRef Google Scholar

[23] Cao J, Wang C. Multifunctional surface modification of silk fabric via graphene oxide repeatedly coating and chemical reduction method. Appl Surf Sci, 2017, 405: 380-388 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[24] Narayanan S C, Karpagam K R, Bhattacharyya A. Nanocomposite coatings on cotton and silk fibers for enhanced electrical conductivity. Fibers Polym, 2015, 16: 1269-1275 CrossRef Google Scholar

[25] Zhang M, Wang C, Wang Q, et al. Sheath-core graphite/silk fiber made by dry-meyer-rod-coating for wearable strain sensors. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016, 8: 20894-20899 CrossRef Google Scholar

[26] Ribeiro V P, Almeida L R, Martins A R, et al. Influence of different surface modification treatments on silk biotextiles for tissue engineering applications. J Biomed Mater Res, 2016, 104: 496-507 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[27] Zhou Y, Tang R C. Modification of curcumin with a reactive UV absorber and its dyeing and functional properties for silk. Dyes Pigments, 2016, 134: 203-211 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Buga M R, Zaharia C, Bălan M, et al. Surface modification of silk fibroin fibers with poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(tributylsilyl methacrylate) via RAFT polymerization for marine antifouling applications. Mater Sci Eng-C, 2015, 51: 233-241 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[29] Zhang H, Liu X, Yang M, et al. Silk fibroin/sodium alginate composite nano-fibrous scaffold prepared through thermally induced phase-separation (TIPS) method for biomedical applications. Mater Sci Eng-C, 2015, 55: 8-13 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[30] Lin N, Liu X Y, Diao Y Y, et al. Switching on fluorescent emission by molecular recognition and aggregation dissociation. Adv Funct Mater, 2012, 22: 361-368 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Lin N, Toh G W, Feng Y, et al. Two-photon fluorescent Bombyx mori silk by molecular recognition functionalization. J Mater Chem B, 2014, 2: 2136-2143 CrossRef Google Scholar

[32] Xu Y, Chen D, Du Z, et al. Structure and properties of silk fibroin grafted carboxylic cotton fabric via amide covalent modification. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2017, 161: 99-108 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[33] Lv L, Han X, Zong L, et al. Biomimetic hybridization of kevlar into silk fibroin: Nanofibrous strategy for improved mechanic properties of flexible composites and filtration membranes. ACS Nano, 2017, 11: 8178-8184 CrossRef Google Scholar

[34] Wang P, Zhou Y, Cui L, et al. Enzymatic grafting of lactoferrin onto silk fibroins for antibacterial functionalization. Fibers Polym, 2014, 15: 2045-2050 CrossRef Google Scholar

[35] Hong J, Han X, Shi H, et al. Preparation of conductive silk fibroin yarns coated with polyaniline using an improved method based on in situ polymerization. Synth Met, 2018, 235: 89-96 CrossRef Google Scholar

[36] Zhou W, Huang H, Du S, et al. Removal of copper ions from aqueous solution by adsorption onto novel polyelectrolyte film-coated nanofibrous silk fibroin non-wovens. Appl Surf Sci, 2015, 345: 169-174 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[37] Jin J, Hassanzadeh P, Perotto G, et al. A biomimetic composite from solution self-assembly of chitin nanofibers in a silk fibroin matrix. Adv Mater, 2013, 25: 4482-4487 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[38] Elahi M F, Guan G, Wang L, et al. Influence of layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition and EDC/NHS activated heparin immobilization onto silk fibroin fabric. Materials, 2014, 7: 2956-2977 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[39] Nisal A, Trivedy K, Mohammad H, et al. Uptake of azo dyes into silk glands for production of colored silk cocoons using a green feeding approach. ACS Sustain Chem Eng, 2014, 2: 312-317 CrossRef Google Scholar

[40] Ji J Y, Kang C M, Li K, et al. Comparison of structures of luminescent silkworm silk prepared by feeding and dyeing. Mater Res Innovations, 2014, 18: S4-817-S4-820 CrossRef Google Scholar

[41] Wang J T, Li L L, Zhang M Y, et al. Directly obtaining high strength silk fiber from silkworm by feeding carbon nanotubes. Mater Sci Eng-C, 2014, 34: 417-421 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[42] Tian J H, Hu J S, Li F C, et al. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on nutrition metabolism in silkworm fat body. Biol Open, 2016, 5: 764-769 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[43] Cai L, Shao H, Hu X, et al. Reinforced and ultraviolet resistant silks from silkworms fed with titanium dioxide nanoparticles. ACS Sustain Chem Eng, 2015, 3: 2551-2557 CrossRef Google Scholar

[44] Wang J T, Li L L, Feng L, et al. Directly obtaining pristine magnetic silk fibers from silkworm. Int J Biol Macromol, 2014, 63: 205-209 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[45] Guo Z, Xie W, Gao Q, et al. In situ biomineralization by silkworm feeding with ion precursors for the improved mechanical properties of silk fiber. Int J Biol Macromol, 2018, 109: 21-26 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[46] Wu G H, Song P, Zhang D Y, et al. Robust composite silk fibers pulled out of silkworms directly fed with nanoparticles. Int J Biol Macromol, 2017, 104: 533-538 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[47] Zhang C, Liu X, Xia L, et al. Characterization of raw silk fibers obtained by feeding silkworms with protein powder. J Nat Fibers, 2018, 15: 496-505 CrossRef Google Scholar

[48] Nguku E K, Muli E M, Raina S K. Larvae, cocoon and post-cocoon characteristics of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: bombycidae) fed on mulberry leaves fortified with Kenyan royal jelly. J Appl Sci Environ Manage, 2007, 11: 85–89. Google Scholar

[49] Nicodemo D, Oliveira J E, Sedano A A, et al. Impact of different silkworm dietary supplements on its silk performance. J Mater Sci, 2014, 49: 6302-6310 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[50] Teramoto H, Kojima K. Incorporation of methionine analogues into Bombyx mori silk fibroin for click modifications. Macromol Biosci, 2015, 15: 719-727 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[51] Teramoto H, Kojima K. Production of Bombyx mori silk fibroin incorporated with unnatural amino acids. Biomacromolecules, 2014, 15: 2682-2690 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[52] Kuwana Y, Sezutsu H, Nakajima K, et al. High-toughness silk produced by a transgenic silkworm expressing spider (araneus ventricosus) dragline silk protein. PLoS ONE, 2014, 9: e105325 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[53] Teulé F, Miao Y G, Sohn B H, et al. Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2012, 109: 923-928 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[54] Kim K B, Kim M J, Choi K M. Development of the Micro-Silk Through the Breeding of Transgenic Silkworm. In: Advances in Affective and Pleasurable Design. Cham: Springer, 2016. 41–47. Google Scholar

[55] Li Z, Jiang Y, Cao G L, et al. Construction of transgenic silkworm spinning antibacterial silk with fluorescence. Mol Biol Rep, 2015, 42: 19-25 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[56] Saotome T, Hayashi H, Tanaka R, et al. Introduction of VEGF or RGD sequences improves revascularization properties of Bombyx mori silk fibroin produced by transgenic silkworm. J Mater Chem B, 2015, 3: 7109-7116 CrossRef Google Scholar

[57] Nagano A, Tanioka Y, Sakurai N, et al. Regeneration of the femoral epicondyle on calcium-binding silk scaffolds developed using transgenic silk fibroin produced by transgenic silkworm. Acta Biomater, 2011, 7: 1192-1201 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[58] Huang G, Yang D, Sun C, et al. A quicker degradation rate is yielded by a novel kind of transgenic silk fibroin consisting of shortened silk fibroin heavy chains fused with matrix metalloproteinase cleavage sites. J Mater Sci-Mater Med, 2014, 25: 1833-1842 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[59] Liu Q, Wang X, Tan X, et al. A strategy for improving the mechanical properties of silk fiber by directly injection of ferric ions into silkworm. Mater Des, 2018, 146: 134-141 CrossRef Google Scholar

[60] Wang X, Li Y, Liu Q, et al. In vivo effects of metal ions on conformation and mechanical performance of silkworm silks. Biochim Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects, 2017, 1861: 567-576 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[61] Wang X, Zhao P, Li Y, et al. Modifying the mechanical properties of silk fiber by genetically disrupting the ionic environment for silk formation. Biomacromolecules, 2015, 16: 3119-3125 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[62] Furusawa T, Nojima K, Ichida M, et al. Introduction to the proposed space experiments aboard the ISS using the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Biol Sci Space, 2009, 23: 61-69 CrossRef Google Scholar

[63] Li W, Wang J, Chi H, et al. Preparation and antibacterial activity of polyvinyl alcohol/regenerated silk fibroin composite fibers containing Ag nanoparticles. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012, 123: 20-25 CrossRef Google Scholar

[64] Chung S, Ercan B, Roy A K, et al. Addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk scaffold improves the mammalian cell activity while reducing bacterial growth. Front Physiol, 2016, 7: 297 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[65] Rajabi M, Firouzi M, Hassannejad Z, et al. Fabrication and characterization of electrospun laminin-functionalized silk fibroin/poly(ethylene oxide) nanofibrous scaffolds for peripheral nerve regeneration. J Biomed Mater Res, 2018, 106: 1595-1604 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[66] Wei G, Li C, Fu Q, et al. Preparation of PCL/silk fibroin/collagen electrospun fiber for urethral reconstruction. Int Urol Nephrol, 2015, 47: 95-99 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[67] Ren Z, Ma S, Jin L, et al. Repairing a bone defect with a three-dimensional cellular construct composed of a multi-layered cell sheet on electrospun mesh. Biofabrication, 2017, 9: 025036 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[68] Kim H, Che L, Ha Y, et al. Mechanically-reinforced electrospun composite silk fibroin nanofibers containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Mater Sci Eng-C, 2014, 40: 324-335 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[69] Peng L, Jiang S, Seuß M, et al. Two-in-one composite fibers with side-by-side arrangement of silk fibroin and poly(l-lactide) by electrospinning. Macromol Mater Eng, 2016, 301: 48-55 CrossRef Google Scholar

[70] Ayutsede J, Gandhi M, Sukigara S, et al. Carbon nanotube reinforced Bombyx mori silk nanofibers by the electrospinning process. Biomacromolecules, 2006, 7: 208-214 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[71] Zhang F, Lu Q, Yue X, et al. Regeneration of high-quality silk fibroin fiber by wet spinning from CaCl2-formic acid solvent. Acta Biomater, 2015, 12: 139-145 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[72] Zhang C, Zhang Y, Shao H, et al. Hybrid silk fibers dry-spun from regenerated silk fibroin/graphene oxide aqueous solutions. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016, 8: 3349-3358 CrossRef Google Scholar

[73] Fang G, Zheng Z, Yao J, et al. Tough protein-carbon nanotube hybrid fibers comparable to natural spider silks. J Mater Chem B, 2015, 3: 3940-3947 CrossRef Google Scholar

[74] Zhang Q, Wang N, Hu R, et al. Wet spinning of Bletilla striata polysaccharide/silk fibroin hybrid fibers. Mater Lett, 2015, 161: 576-579 CrossRef Google Scholar

[75] Yan Y, Cheng B, Chen K, et al. Enhanced osteogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by a functionalized silk fibroin hydrogel for bone defect repair. Adv Healthcare Mater, 2019, 8: 1801043 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[76] Lee J M, Sultan M T, Kim S H, et al. Artificial auricular cartilage using silk fibroin and polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel. Int J Mol Sci, 2017, 18: 1707 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[77] Rajkhowa R, Hu X, Tsuzuki T, et al. Structure and biodegradation mechanism of milled Bombyx mori silk particles. Biomacromolecules, 2012, 13: 2503-2512 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[78] Seib F P, Jones G T, Rnjak-Kovacina J, et al. PH-dependent anticancer drug release from silk nanoparticles. Adv Healthcare Mater, 2013, 2: 1606-1611 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[79] Montalbán M G, Coburn J M, Lozano-Pérez A A, et al. Production of curcumin-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles for cancer therapy. Nanomaterials, 2018, 8: 126-144 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[80] Wang Y, Song Y, Wang Y, et al. Graphene/silk fibroin based carbon nanocomposites for high performance supercapacitors. J Mater Chem A, 2015, 3: 773-781 CrossRef Google Scholar

[81] Liu C, Li J, Che L, et al. Toward large-scale fabrication of triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with silk-fibroin patches film via spray-coating process. Nano Energy, 2017, 41: 359-366 CrossRef Google Scholar

[82] Gao A, Xie K, Song X, et al. Removal of the heavy metal ions from aqueous solution using modified natural biomaterial membrane based on silk fibroin. Ecol Eng, 2017, 99: 343-348 CrossRef Google Scholar

[83] Magrì D, Caputo G, Perotto G, et al. Titanate fibroin nanocomposites: A novel approach for the removal of heavy-metal ions from water. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018, 10: 651-659 CrossRef Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    Structure of silk fibroin fiber [4].

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) The silk fibroin fiber is modified with nano silver and triiron tetroxide by continuous assembly [12].

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Modification of silk fibroin fiber with graphene & silver nanoparticle [10].

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Aramid fiber modified silk fibroin fiber [31].

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) (a) 5th instar Bombyx mori larvae feeding on mulberry leaves sprayed with direct acid fast red dye solution; (b) dissected silkworm glands; (c) colored cocoon shells after the larvae have been taken out [37].

  • Figure 6

    Electron microscopy of modified silk fibroin fiber with different Hap contents [64].

  • Table 1   The summary of composite modification of silk fibroin fiber with different substance

    Nanomaterial

    Approach

    Functions

    Advantages and disadvantages

    Metal nanoparticle

    Au, Ag

    In situ synthesis

    Antibacterial [512]

    Excellent antimicrobial effect, but utilization of precious metals leads to high costs

    Metal compoundsnanoparticles

    AgCl, Cu2O,CeO2, ZnO

    In situ generation, dip-coating

    Antibacterial [1316]

    Diversification of functions by using different substances, but there is no formation of covalent bond on the surface of composite fibers so that stability of composite fiber’s function might be poor

    HBP-TiO2, TiO2

    Impregnation, ALD

    Ultraviolet resistance and mechanical improvement [17,18]

    SiO2

    Dip-coating

    Increased color strength [19]

    Fe3O4

    Swelling-fixing

    Magnetic [20]

    CdTe, UCNP

    Assembly technology

    Fluorescent [21,22]

    Carbon nanomaterial

    GO, EG, NG,CNT, CNF

    Coating process

    Conductive [2325]

    Nanomaterials tend to self-accumulate

    Organic small molecule

    AAc, VPA,VSA

    Immersion

    Improved cell adhesion [26]

    The formation of covalent bonds improves the stability of composite fibers, but organic molecules are required to have groups that are able to react with silk fibroin molecules some of process are complex, and potential toxicity of some small organic molecules should be considered

    Curcumin

    Dyeing process

    Antibacterial [27]

    Tributylsilylmethacrylate

    RAFT-mediated polymerization

    Surface free energy reduction [28]

    Sodium alginate

    Thermally-induced phase-separation

    Biocompatible [29]

    TPF, Styrene-anthracene derivative

    Molecular recognition and interaction

    Fluorescence [30,31]

    Organic macromolecule

    Oxidized cotton

    Graft reaction

    Enhanced properties of mechanicsand water absorption [32]

    Aramid fiber

    Hydrothermal treatments

    Improved mechanic properties [33]

    Bovine lactoferrin

    Graft reaction

    Antibacterial [34]

    Polyaniline

    In situ polymerization

    Conductive [35]

    PEI

    LBL

    Ions adsorption [36]

    Chitin

    Self-assembled

    Highly elastic [37]

    PAH, PAA

    LBL

    Biocompatible [38]

  • Table 2   The summary of modification by feeding silkworm with different substance

    Feeding substance

    Functions

    Advantages and disadvantages

    Dye

    Brilliant yellow, Congo red, acid orange G, acid orange II, mordant black 17, direct acid fast red and Sudan III

    Dyed silk [39]

    Green, environmentally friendly. The disadvantage is limitationsof the physiological metabolicactivities of silkworms

    Rhodamine B

    Obtained luminescent silk fibroin fiber [40]

    Nanoparticle

    SWCNT and graphene

    Improvement of elongation at break and toughness of silk fibroin fiber [41]

    Tio2 nanoparticles

    Improvement of breaking strength and elongation at break [43]

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Magnetic properties, excellent thermal stability and mechanical properties [44]

    Ion precursors of Ca2+ and PO43–

    Superior mechanical properties [45]

    Nanoparticles (Cu, Fe, and tio2)

    Improvement of the tensile strength of silk fibroin fiber [46]

    Natural polymer

    Down-powder

    Increased the tensile strength [47]

    Royal jelly

    Increased weight of larvae, cocoons and pupae [48]

    Amino acid

    Threonine or proline

    Improvement of mechanical strength [49], Reactive sites were obtained [50,51]

  • Table 3   The summary of modification with spinning technology

    Additive substances

    Functions

    Advantages and disadvantages

    Electrospinning

    Ag, Se

    Antibacterial [63,64]

    Nanofibers could be prepared, and it hasuniform distribution, high aspect ratioand high controllability, but the outputof electrospinning may be a problem

    Laminin, collagen, poly(L-lactide)and gelatin, hydroxyapatite,

    Biocompatible

    [6568]

    L-polylactic acid, single-walledcarbon nanotube

    Excellent mechanical properties[6970]

    Wet spinning or dryspinning

    CaCl2-formic acid

    High strength and ductility [71]

    It is simple and effective to prepare fiberwhich of diameter larger than that preparedby electro-spinning, but the use of toxic and harmful solvents may unfriendly to theenvironment

    Graphene oxide or CTN

    Excellent mechanical properties [72,73]

    B. striata polysaccharide

    Biocompatible and degradableimproved [74]

Copyright 2019 Science China Press Co., Ltd. 《中国科学》杂志社有限责任公司 版权所有

京ICP备18024590号-1