1. School of Electronic Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
2. College of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China
3. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA
Corresponding author (firstname.lastname@example.org
In this paper, 45 GHz and 60 GHz power amplifiers (PAs) with high output power have been successfully designed by using 90 nm CMOS process. The 45 GHz (60 GHz) PA consists of two (four) differential stages. The sizes of transistors have been designed in an appropriate way so as to trade-off gain, efficiency and stability. Due to limited supply voltage and low breakdown voltage of CMOS MOSFET compared with the traditional III-V technologies, the technique of power combining has been applied to achieve a high output power. In particular, a novel 8-way distributed active transformer power combiner has been proposed for realizing such mm-wave PA. The proposed transformer combiner with a fully symmetrical layout can improve its input impedance balance at mm-wave frequency regime significantly. Taking its advantages of this novel transformer based power combiner, our realized 45 GHz (60 GHz) mm-wave PA has achieved the gain of łinebreak 20.3 dB (16.8 dB), the maximum PAE of 14.5% (13.4%) and the saturated output power of 21 dBm (21 dBm) with the 1.2 V supply voltage.
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61331006, 61422104), National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grand No. 2016ZX03001015-004), and National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863) (Grand No. 2015AA01A704).
Transformer power combiner.
(a) 4-way transformer power combiner with two primaries; (b) parallel connected 4-way transformer power combiner; (c) 8-way transformer power combiner with four primaries.
(Color online) Traditional transformer combiner.
(Color online) Fully symmetrical 8-way transformer combiner.
(Color online) (a) Proposed fully symmetrical 8-way transformer combiner; (b) traditional 8-way transformer combiner.
(Color online) (a) Real part of input impedance of fully symmetrical 8-way transformer power combiner;protectłinebreak (b) imaginary part of input impedance of fully symmetrical 8-way transformer power combiner.
Loss of proposed fully symmetrical 8-way transformer power combiner.
(Color online) Schematic of the proposed four-stage Class A power amplifier.
(Color online) (a) 3-D structure of the transformer balun; (b) top view of the transformer balun.
(Color online) (a) Top view of the back-to-back structure; (b) the measured and EM simulated S parameters of the back-to-back.
(a) Die micrograph of 45 GHz power amplifier; (b) Die micrograph of 60 GHz power amplifier.
(Color online) Measured and simulated S parameters of the 45 GHz PA.
(Color online) Measured and simulated Pout, Gain and PAE at 45 GHz.
(Color online) Measured and simulated S parameters of the 60 GHz PA.
(Color online) Measured and simulated Pout, Gain and PAE at 60 GHz.
The measured stability factors of 45 GHz and 60 GHz PAs.
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