SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 60, Issue 10: 100306(2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-017-9186-6

A trust framework based smart aggregation for machine type communication

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  • ReceivedApr 21, 2017
  • AcceptedJul 11, 2017
  • PublishedSep 6, 2017


Machine type communication (MTC) is one of the significant communication paradigms in the fifth generation networks. The existing cellular networks are not designed for massive access of the MTC devices. Therefore, data aggregation and relaying are advocated to reduce the massive MTC access besides other physical layer solutions. In this paper, we propose a secured multiple mobile relay selection algorithm that smartly aggregates data from adjacent MTC devices through multiple user equipments and transmits it to the base station (BS). The paper also presents a framework for the selection of trusted relays to cooperatively aggregate MTC data and render two-hop connectivity to the BS. Our proposed algorithm is compared with existing algorithms on the basis of energy efficiency, system capacity, communication delay and outage probability. Our proposed algorithm outperformsthe other schemes by improving outage probability and communication delay by 33% and 25%, respectively.


This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61325006, 61461136002) and 111 Project of China (Grant No. B16006).


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  • Figure 1

    Typical MTC system model.

  • Figure 2

    Communication scenario of MTC network.

  • Figure 3

    Formation of graphs. (a) Social graph; (b) geo-graph; (c) recent file sharing history based graph; (d) trust transitivity based graph.

  • Figure 4

    Relay graph for 9with $n~=~1$.

  • Figure 5

    Relay graph for 13with $n~=~1$.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Outage probability for different packet arrival rates.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) Communication delay with different packet arrival rates.

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) Energy consumption for increasing number of MTC devices.

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) System capacity for increasing packet arrival rate.


    Algorithm 1 Multiple mobile relays algorithm

    Selection of primary relay $n~\upvarepsilon~\mathcal{N}$

    Graphs formation i.e., $\mathcal{N}^T_n,~~\mathcal{N}^H_n,~\mathcal{N}^\text{CF}_n,~\mathcal{N}^G_n$

    Formation of potential relays using 13

    Arrange ${\mathcal{R}}_n$ on the basis of current load and battery life.

    Selection of relays from ${\mathcal{R}}_n$ until all $\mathcal{M}$ MTC devices are served. The set of relays are called ${\mathcal{R}}^\text{current}_n$, where ${{\mathcal{R}}^\text{current}_n\subseteq~\mathcal{R}}_n$ and \begin{equation}\mathcal{M}=\bigcup^N_{n=1}{M_n}.\end{equation}

    Data transmission from MTC devices to respective relays i.e., ${\mathcal{R}}^\text{current}_n$.

    If certain relay is unavailable, goto step 5.

    Transmission of aggregated MTC data to the BS at the end of time $\mathcal{T}$.

  • Table 1   Simulation parameters
    Parameter Value
    Time slot (T) 1 ms
    Channel bandwidth 180 kHz
    Packet size 64 kb
    Reference distance $d_0$ 1 m
    Energy consumption/packet 50 J/$d_0$
    Number of stationary relays randomly distributed 4
    Speed of UE 1–3 m/s
    Maximum MTC device-UE distance ($d1$) 50 m
    Maximum UE-BS distance ($d2$) 200 m
    MTC device transmit power (A-R) 18 dBm
    MTC device transmit power (A-B) 25 dBm
    Time interval to send aggregated data ($\mathcal{T}$) 5 s

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