SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 61 , Issue 6 : 062403(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-017-9192-5

Surface-plasmonic right-angle waveguide amplifiers

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  • ReceivedApr 9, 2017
  • AcceptedAug 1, 2017
  • PublishedNov 20, 2017


We propose a surface-plasmonic right-angle bend waveguidewith bismuth ion-doped glass film as core layer and Ag films as claddinglayers for first time, to the best of our knowledge. Theoretical analysisshows that the right-angle has bend and absorption losses of 3.17 dB. Therate equations and power evolution equations of high concentrationbismuth-doped glass film are setup and solved to analyze the effect of thewaveguide length and active ion concentration on the signal gain and NoiseFigure (NF). The theoretical results predict that with the pump power 100 mW,the active ion concentration 2.0$\times~$10$^{26}$ ions/m$^{3}$ and theright-angle waveguide size 1.0 cm$\times~$1.0 cm, small-signal unit-lengthnet gain can reach 15.32 dB with NF less than 5.0 dB.


This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 60377023, 61671306) and Science and Technology Innovation Commission of Shenzhen (Grant No. JCYJ20160328- 145357990).


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) A waveguide structure with bismuth-doped glass film (BiG) as core layer and Ag films as cladding layers. (a) Principal view; (b) cutaway view.

  • Figure 2

    Schematic coordination configuration energy levels of bismuth-doped glass with excited state absorption.protectłinebreak (a) Two electrons are excited to 3rd-levels; (b) one electron transits to ground level and other is excited to 4th-level; (c) one electron is excited to 3rd-level and other is excited to higher level.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Transmission, reflection and loss spectra of un-doped MIM right-angle waveguide calculated using FDTD method. `a' is an arbitrary unit, `c' is speed of light.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Dependence of small-signal gain of bismuth-doped glass waveguide amplifier on waveguide length. Doping concentration, pump power, signal wavelength and signal input power are 2.0$\times~$10$^{26}$ /m$^{3}$, 100 mW, 1532 nm and 1.0 $\mu$W, respectively.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Variation of small-signal gain and noise figure of bismuth ion-doped waveguide amplifier on bismuth ion concentration. Waveguide length, pump power, signal wavelength and signal input power are 10.0 cm, protect 100 mW, 1532 nm and 1.0 $\mu$W, respectively.

  • Table 1   Spectroscopic parameters of bismuth ion-doped glasses
    DescriptionParameters value (unit)
    Pump /signal wavelength ($\lambda~$p/$\lambda~$s)980 nm/1530 nm
    Absorption/emission cross section @980 nm9.0$\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$ / 9.0$\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$
    Excited state absorption cross section @980 nm9.0$\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$
    Absorption /emission cross section @1530 nm8.0 $\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$/ 8.0 $\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$
    Absorption/emission cross section @700 nm3.33$\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$ /3.33 $\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$
    Absorption/emission cross section @500 nm8.31$\times~$10$^{~-~25}$ m$^{2}$ /8.31 $\times~$10$^{~-~25}$ m$^{2}$
    $A_{21}$ (Bi$^{+}~~^{3}P_{1}-~^{3}\!P_{0})$1000/5.0/s
    $A_{31}$ (Bi$^{+}~~^{3}P_{2}-~^{3}\!P_{0})$10000/s
    $A_{41}$ (Bi$^{+}~~^{3}P_{3}-~^{3}\!P_{0})$1000000/230/s
    $A_{32}$ (Bi$^{+}~~^{3}P_{2}-~^{3}\!P_{1})$1000000/s
    Waveguide core width, height1.0 $\mu~$m
    Overlap @1530 nm0.8
    Overlap @980 nm0.6
    Overlap @500 nm, 700 nm0.4
  • Table 2   Doping concentrations and internal gain and gain per unit length ofsurface-plasmonic bismuth ion-doped right-angle glass waveguide amplifierand erbium and ytterbium co-doped phosphate fiber amplifier $^{\rm~a)}$
    Pumping power/Optimal erbium/ytterbium Gain Gain/cm Reference
    Fiber lengthconcentration (ion/m$^{3}$)(dB)(dB/cm)
    224 mW/3.6 cm4.0$\times~$10$^{26}$, 8.0$\times~$10$^{26}$31.08.61[22]
    224 mW/5.55 cm3.0$\times~$10$^{26}$, 8.0$\times~$10$^{26}$35.06.31[22]
    Pump power/wave-Bismuth ion concentrationGainGain/cmThis work
    guide length
    100 mW/8.0 cm2.0$\times~$10$^{26}$28.015.32

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