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SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 61, Issue 8: 082305(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-017-9278-0

Uplink spectral efficiency analysis of multi-cell multi-user massive MIMO over correlated Ricean channel

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  • ReceivedJun 2, 2017
  • AcceptedOct 10, 2017
  • PublishedMay 18, 2018

Abstract

In this study, the performance of uplink spectral efficiency in massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) over a spatially correlated Ricean fading channel is presented. The maximum ratio combining (MRC) receiver is employed at the base station (BS) for two channel estimation methods. The first method is based on pilot-assisted least minimum mean square error (LMMSE) estimation, whereas the second is based on line-of-sight (LOS). The respective analytical expressions of the uplink data rate are given for these two methods. Because of the existence of pilot contamination, the uplink data rate of the pilot-assisted LMMSE estimation method approaches a finite value (we call it the asymptotic rate in this study) when the BS antenna number is high. However, the data rate of the LOS method is linear with the number of BS antennas. The expression of the uplink rate of the LOS method also shows that for a Ricean channel, the spatial correlation between the BS antennas may either decrease the rate or increase the rate, depending on user location. This conclusion explains why the spatial correlation may increase rather than decrease the data rate of pilot-assisted LMMSE. We also discuss the power scaling law of the two methods, and show that the asymptotic expressions of the two methods are the same and both are independent of the antenna correlation.


Acknowledgment

This work was supported in part by Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61501113, 61521061, 61401241, 61501264), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grant No. BK201506- 30), and Open Research Fund of National Mobile Communications Research Laboratory, Southeast University (Grant No. 2015D02).


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  • Figure 1

    Uplink sum-rate as a function of the number of BS antennas $N$ for various Ricean factors when the pilot-assisted LMMSE estimation is used with $\kappa~=0.2$.

  • Figure 2

    Uplink sum-rate as a function of the number of BS antennas $N$ for various Ricean factors when the LOS component is used for channel estimation with $\kappa~=0.2$.

  • Figure 3

    Uplink sum-rate against SNR for different numbers of antennas $N$ with $\kappa~=0.2$, ${\vartheta~_k}=3$ dB for pilot-assisted LMMSE estimation and the LOS component channel as channel estimation.

  • Figure 4

    Uplink sum-rate as a function of the number of BS antennas $N$ for various Ricean factors and various correlation coefficients when the pilot assisted LMMSE estimation is used.

  • Figure 5

    Effect of user position distribution on the sum-rate when the LOS component is used for channel estimation. (a) ${\theta~_k}{\rm{~=~}}\frac{{\pi~\left(~{k~-~1}\right)}}{K}-~\frac{\pi~}{2},k~=~1,~\ldots~,K$; (b) ${\theta~_k}{\rm{~=~}}\frac{{{{2k~-~1}}}}{{2K}}-~\frac{\pi~}{4},k~=~1,~\ldots~,K$.

  • Figure 6

    Uplink sum-rate against the Ricean factor ${\vartheta~_k}$ for different correlation coefficients with $N$ = 600 for two channel estimation methods.

  • Figure 7

    Comparison of uplink sum-rates as a function of the number of BS antennas $N$ between pilot-assisted LMMSE estimation and the LOS component channel for channel estimation when power scaling is taken.

  • Figure 8

    Comparison of uplink sum-rates as a function of the number of BS antennas $N$ between pilot-assisted LMMSE estimation and the LOS component channel for channel estimation.

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