SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 61, Issue 5: 050104(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-017-9401-y

IO dependent SSD cache allocation for elastic Hadoop applications

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  • ReceivedNov 15, 2017
  • AcceptedMar 29, 2018
  • PublishedApr 18, 2018


Elastic Hadoop applications consisting of multiple virtual machines (VMs) are widely used to support big data analysis and processing. In this scenario, flash-based solid state drive (SSD) is usually deployed on hypervisors and used as the cache to improve the IO performance. However, existing SSD caching schemes are mostly VM-centric, which focus on the low-level IO performance metrics of individual VMs. They may not lead to the optimized performance of elastic Hadoop applications, i.e., the job completion time (JCT), as the importance of VMs inside the application are different even though they have the similar low-level IO patterns. Considering the IO dependency among VMs and figuring out the importance, which we regard as the application-centric metrics, may potentially better improve the performance. We present IO dependency based requirement model, to characterize the requirement of SSD cache for each VM inside the elastic Hadoop application, and then use it in a genetic algorithm (GA) based approach to calculate the nearly optimal weights of VMs for allocating the per-VM SSD cache space and the capacity of the I/O operations per second (IOPS). Furthermore, we present a tool AC-SSD based on the approach and introduce the closed-loop adaptation to react to continuously changing workloads. The evaluation shows that by using AC-SSD, the JCT is reduced by up to 39% for IO sensitive workloads, up to 29% for continuously changing workloads, and over 12.5% for different scale of data comparing to the shared cache.


This work was supported by National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFB1000103), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61572480), Tianjin Massive Data Processing Technology Laboratory, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 2015088).


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  • Figure 1

    VM-centric SSD cache allocation.

  • Figure 2

    Application-centric SSD cache allocation.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Job completion time of 4 benchmarks when allocating different size of SSD cache.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) The changes of throughput and IOPS during the execution of the K-Means benchmark.

  • Figure 5

    IO dependency based requirement model.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Execution of the closed-loop.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) Job completion time of TestDFSIO for 3 clusters under 3 modes.

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) Throughput of TestDFSIO for 3 clusters under 3 modes.

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) Job completion time for 3 clusters running different workloads. (a) Cluster 1; (b) cluster 2;protect łinebreak (c) cluster 3.

  • Figure 10

    (Color online) Reduction of JCT in the dynamic environment. (a) Cluster 1; (b) cluster 2; (c) cluster 3.

  • Figure 11

    (Color online) Reduction of job completion for different data scale. (a) Small; (b) large.


    Algorithm 1 Fitness calculation

    Require:Target genome; CPU time, IO usage (IO time, Bandwidth and IOPS), network throughput for each VM;

    Output:Fitness for target genome.


    for all chromosome $c$ in target genome

    VM ${\rm~c.v}$ $\gets$ VM bound to $c$;

    Application ${\rm~c.app}$ $\gets$ Application bound to $c$;

    Weight ${\rm~c.ws}$ $\gets$ Weight of cache space bound to $c$;

    Weight ${\rm~c.wi}$ $\gets$ Weight of IOPS capacity bound to $c$;

    IO sensitivity ${\rm~c.s}$ $\gets$ ${\rm~c.v}.{\rm~IOTime}~/~{\rm~c.v}$.CPUTime;

    Random access intensity ${\rm~c.r}$ $\gets$ ${\rm~c.v}.{\rm~TotalIOPS}~/~{\rm~c.v}$.TotalBandwidth;

    $//$ Calculating the IO dependency

    IO dependency ${\rm~c.d}$ $\gets$ 0;

    for all network throughput $t$ between ${\rm~c.v}$ and VMs in ${\rm~c.app}$

    ${\rm~c.d}$ $\gets$ ${\rm~c.d}$ + $t~/~{\rm~c.v}$.TotalBandwidth;

    end for

    end for

    $//$ Normalization

    for all chromosome $c$ in target genome

    ${\rm~c.s}$ $\gets$ ${\rm~c.s}~/~{\rm~Total}~{\rm~c.s}$;

    ${\rm~c.r}$ $\gets$ ${\rm~c.r}~/~{\rm~Total}~{\rm~c.r}$;

    ${\rm~c.d}$ $\gets$ ${\rm~c.d}~/~{\rm~Total}~{\rm~c.d}$;

    end for

    $//$ Calculate the match degree

    for all chromosome $c$ in target genome

    Match degree ${\rm~c.m}$ $\gets$ $({\rm~c.ws}-{\rm~c.s})^2+({\rm~c.wi}-{\rm~c.r})^2+({\rm~c.ws}-{\rm~c.d})^2+({\rm~c.wi}-{\rm~c.d})^2$;

    end for

    Fitness $f$ $\gets$ $4~\times~({\rm~count}_{\rm~VM})-~\sum{{\rm~c.m}}$;

    return $f$

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