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SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 61 , Issue 8 : 080402(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9390-0

Silicon-based on-chip diplexing/triplexing technologies and devices

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  • ReceivedJan 1, 2018
  • AcceptedFeb 6, 2018
  • PublishedJul 9, 2018

Abstract

Wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transceiver filters are one of the most essential components for realizing the fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) networks. In recent years, silicon photonics have provided a very attractive platform to build ultra-compact photonic integrated devices with CMOS-compatible processes. In this review, we focus on the recent progresses on diplexers/triplexers based on multimode interference couplers (MMI), and directional couplers (DC). The polarization-insensitive devices are also discussed.


Acknowledgment

This work was supported in part by National Key Research and Development Program (Grant No. 2016YFB0402502) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61675178, 61377023).


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Schematic diagram of the wavelength (de)multiplexers (diplexer/triplexer) in optical networks.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Schematic diagram of the triplexer based on cascaded titled multimode interference couplers [42]@Copyright 2018 Elsevier.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) (a) Optical microscope image and the SEM images of the specific part of the fabricated device. The normalized transmission spectra of the fabricated device from different output ports: (b) 1310 nm band and (c) protectłinebreak1490 nm/1550 nmband [42]@Copyright 2018 Elsevier.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) (a) The schematic diagram of the triplexer based on silicon Bragg grating-assisted MMI couplers. Simulated optical filed distribution at the wavelength of (b) 1550 nm, (c) 1490 nm, and (d) 1310 nm, respectively [45]@Copyright 2017 IEEE.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) (a) The optical microscope image. Enlarged SEM images: (b) the input port and 1310 nm output port, (c) the Bragg grating part and (d) the output ports for 1550 nm and 1490 nm. Measured transmission spectra for the fabricated device at (e) 1490 nm/ 1550 nm and (f) 1310 nm bands [45]@Copyright 2017 IEEE.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) (a) The dispersion curves for TE0 and TE1 modes at three wavelength bands. (b) The phase mismatch curves with varied wavelength [47]@Copyright 2017 IEEE.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) The schematic diagram for the triplexers based on asymmetrical DCs and the microscope image for the fabricated device [47]@Copyright 2017 IEEE.

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) (a) Schematic diagram of the silicon triplexer based on cascaded bent DCs; (b) the SEM image of the fabricated device [48]@Copyright 2017 IEEE.

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) The normalized transmission spectra of the fabricated device from different output ports [48]@Copyright 2017 IEEE. (a) 1310 nm band and (b) 1490 nm/1550 nm band.

  • Figure 10

    (Color online) (a) Schematic configuration for the present triplexer with tapering in the first directional coupler. Field distributions simulated with an FDTD method for the present triplexer at (b) $\lambda~$= 1310 nm; (c) $\lambda~$= 1490 nm; (d) $\lambda~$= 1550 nm [50]@Copyright 2006 IEEE.

  • Figure 11

    (Color online) Schematic configuration of the demultiplexer structure [63]@Copyright 2007 IEEE. (a) Top view; (b) cross section of the sandwiched waveguide.

  • Figure 12

    (Color online) 3-D BPM simulations of the field distribution at the middle of the SiN region of the demultiplexer [63]@Copyright 2007 IEEE. (a) Quasi-TE mode, at 1310 nm; (b) quasi-TM mode, at 1310 nm; (c) quasi-TE mode, at protectłinebreak 1550 nm; (d) quasi-TM mode, at 1550 nm.

  • Figure 13

    (Color online) Schematic diagram of the polarization-insensitive wavelength (de-)multiplexer based on cascaded bent DCs [64]@Copyright 2017 IEEE.

  • Figure 14

    (Color online) (a) The optical microscope image and enlarged SEM images of the fabricated device. The measured transmission spectra of the fabricated devices at (b) 1310 nm band and (c) 1490 nm band for both polarizations [64]@Copyright 2017 IEEE.

  • Figure 15

    (Color online) Schematic configuration of the polarization insensitive triplexer based on cascaded DCs [65]@Copyright 2009 IEEE.

  • Figure 16

    (Color online) Output powers (normalized to the input power) at the three output ports as the wavelength varies [65]@Copyright 2009 IEEE. (a) 1310 nm band and (b) 1490/1550 nm bands.

  • Table 1   Comparison of silicon-based duplexer/triplexer based on differentstructures
    Structures Insertion losses (dB) Crosstalks (dB) 3 dB bandwidths (nm) Length ($\mu~$m)
    Butterfly MMI [29] $<$ 2 $<-$12 24, 40, 34 900
    (simulated)
    Tilted MMI [42] 1.23, 1.51, 1.77 $-$18.9, $-$15.9, $-$22.9 100, 28, 32 $\sim~450$
    Bi-directional 0.51, 0.65, 0.81 $-$20.7, $-$26.3, $-$20.2 100, 22, 15 851.5
    MMI [44] (simulated)
    Bragg-grating assisted 2.6, 0.39, 0.56 $-$27, $-$15.9, $-$17.9 85, 23, 31 453
    MMI [45]
    PhC [50] (simulated) 0.03, 0.16, 0.13 $-$17.2, $-$23.22, $-$28.7 48, 20, 15 50
    ADC [47] 0.98, 0.69, 0.76 $-$27.1, $-$23, $-$25.8 70, 30, 20 $\sim~150$
    Bent DC [48] 0.54, 0.9, 0.84 $-$14.4, $-$15, $-$22.6 100, 24, 20 31
  • Table 2   Comparison of polarization-insensitive duplexers/triplexers basedon different structures
    Structures Insertion loss (dB) PDL (dB) Crosstalk (dB) 3dB bandwidths (nm) Length ($\mu~$m)
    Rib MMI [62] $<$ 0.5 NA $<-$25 NA 667
    Sandwiched MMI [63] (simulated) 0.4 0.3 $-$22 $\sim~45$ 360
    Bent DC [64] 0.6 1 $-$27 $\sim~35$ 40
    DC [65] (simulated) 0.5 0.2 $-$25 $\sim~30$ 400

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