SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 61, Issue 6: 060417(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9397-0

Electromechanical modeling of eye fatigue detecting using flexible piezoelectric sensors

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  • ReceivedJan 21, 2018
  • AcceptedMar 21, 2018
  • PublishedMay 15, 2018


Eye fatigue has attracted significant interest due to its potential harm to human daily activities. An ultrathin flexible piezoelectric sensor was currently designed and fabricated to detect eye fatigue by deforming together with the eyelid epidermis. Herein we develop a theoretical model to illustrate the correlation between the eyelid motion and the signals output by the piezoelectric sensor. The theoretical predictions on the eyelid motion based on the measured electrical output agree well with the in vivo observations in experiment. A simple scaling law is established to evaluate the impacts of different parameters on the function ability of the flexible piezoelectric sensor. The results may provide useful guidelines for designing and optimizing similar devices for alike biological motions.


This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11322216, 11621062).


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) (a) Photograph of a piezoelectric fatigue sensor connected with ACF cable; (b) photograph of the core functioning part of the piezoelectric fatigue sensor; (c) and (d) photographs of a volunteer wearing the sensor with eyelid closed and open.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) (a) Schematic diagram of the piezoelectric device; (b) profile diagram of the central part of piezoelectric device; (c) schematic diagram of the piezoelectric device conformally deforming with the eyelid epidermis.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Schematic of geometrical relationship between the eyelid distance and end-to-end displacement of the sensor.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) (a) and (c) output voltage signals collected from in vivo test of a volunteer wearing the sensor; (b) and (d) theoretical predictions of the eyelid distance based on the measured data in (a) and (c).

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Dependence of the normalized peak voltage on the normalized end-to-end displacement of the sensor under different normalized blinking speed.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Scaling law for the normalized peak voltage and the normalized parameter ${\bar~\mu~_{33}}{n_{\rm~p}}{A_{\rm~p}}R/{n_{\rm~s}}{h_{\rm~p}}T$.

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