logo

SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 61, Issue 6: 060417(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9397-0

Electromechanical modeling of eye fatigue detecting using flexible piezoelectric sensors

More info
  • ReceivedJan 21, 2018
  • AcceptedMar 21, 2018
  • PublishedMay 15, 2018

Abstract

Eye fatigue has attracted significant interest due to its potential harm to human daily activities. An ultrathin flexible piezoelectric sensor was currently designed and fabricated to detect eye fatigue by deforming together with the eyelid epidermis. Herein we develop a theoretical model to illustrate the correlation between the eyelid motion and the signals output by the piezoelectric sensor. The theoretical predictions on the eyelid motion based on the measured electrical output agree well with the in vivo observations in experiment. A simple scaling law is established to evaluate the impacts of different parameters on the function ability of the flexible piezoelectric sensor. The results may provide useful guidelines for designing and optimizing similar devices for alike biological motions.


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11322216, 11621062).


References

[1] Connor J, Norton R, Ameratunga S. Driver sleepiness and risk of serious injury to car occupants: population based case control study. BMJ, 2002, 324: 1125 CrossRef Google Scholar

[2] Huang J, Wang Y, Fu Z Y, et al. Fatigue among clinicians and the safety of patients. Chinese Medical Ethics, 2008, 347: 1249--1255. Google Scholar

[3] Lal S K L, Craig A. A critical review of the psychophysiology of driver fatigue. Biol Psychol, 2001, 55: 173-194 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Saito S. Does fatigue exist in a quantitative measurement of eye movements? Ergonomics, 1992, 35: 607--615. Google Scholar

[5] Wu J D, Chen T R. Development of a drowsiness warning system based on the fuzzy logic images analysis. Expert Syst Appl, 2008, 34: 1556-1561 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Dinges D F, Grace R. Perclos: a valid psychophysiological measure of alertness as assessed by psychomotor vigilance. Tech Brief, 1998, 35: 607--615. Google Scholar

[7] Divjak M, Bischof H. Eye blink based fatigue detection for prevention of computer vision syndrome. In: Proceedings of Conference on Machine Vision Application, Yokohama, 2009. 350--353. Google Scholar

[8] Zhang Z T, Zhang J S. A new real-time eye tracking for driver fatigue detection. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Telecommunications, Chengdu, 2006. 8--11. Google Scholar

[9] Ji Q, Zhu Z, Lan P. Real-time nonintrusive monitoring and prediction of driver fatigue. IEEE Trans Veh Technol, 2004, 53: 1052-1068 CrossRef Google Scholar

[10] Martirosyan N, Kalani M Y. Epidermal electronics. Science, 2011, 333: 485--486. Google Scholar

[11] Wang S D, Li M, Wu J. Mechanics of Epidermal Electronics. J Appl Mech, 2012, 79: 031022 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[12] Yeo W H, Kim Y S, Lee J. Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin. Adv Mater, 2013, 25: 2773-2778 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[13] Lu C F, Wu S, Lu B W, et al. Ultrathin exible piezoelectric sensors for monitoring eye fatigue. J Micromech Microeng, 2018, 28: 2. Google Scholar

[14] Jiang H, Khang D Y, Song J. Finite deformation mechanics in buckled thin films on compliant supports. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2007, 104: 15607-15612 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[15] Jiang H, Sun Y, Rogers J A. Mechanics of precisely controlled thin film buckling on elastomeric substrate. Appl Phys Lett, 2007, 90: 133119 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[16] Zhang Y Y, Chen Y S, Lu B W. Electromechanical modeling of energy harvesting from the motion of left ventricle in closed chest environment. J Appl Mech, 2016, 83: 061007 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[17] Ding H J, Chen W Q. 3 dimensional problems of piezoelasticity. Nova Biomed, 2001, 532. Google Scholar

[18] Lente M H, Eiras J A. Interrelationship between self-heating and ferroelectric properties in PZT ceramics during polarization reorientation. J Phys-Condens Matter, 2000, 12: 5939-5950 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[19] Mitchell J A, Reddy J N. A refined hybrid plate theory for composite laminates with piezoelectric laminae. Int J Solids Struct, 1995, 32: 2345-2367 CrossRef Google Scholar

[20] Agache P G, Monneur C, Leveque J L. Mechanical properties and Young's modulus of human skin in vivo. Arch Dermatol Res, 1980, 269: 221-232 CrossRef Google Scholar

[21] Takema Y, Yorimoto Y, Kawai M. Age-related changes in the elastic properties and thickness of human facial skin. Br J Dermatol, 1994, 131: 641-648 CrossRef Google Scholar

[22] Eriksson M, Papanikolopoulos N P. Driver fatigue: a vision-based approach to automatic diagnosis. Transpation Res Part C-Emerg Technol, 2001, 9: 399-413 CrossRef Google Scholar

[23] Schmidtke K, B\"{u}ttner-ennever J A. Nervous control of eyelid function. Brain, 1992, 115: 227-247 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] von Cramon D, Schuri U. Blink frequency and speech motor activity. Neuropsychologia, 1980, 18: 603-606 CrossRef Google Scholar

[25] Evinger C, Manning K A, Sibony P A. Eyelid movements. mechanisms and normal data. Invest Ophth Vis Sci, 1991, 32: 387--400. Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    (Color online) (a) Photograph of a piezoelectric fatigue sensor connected with ACF cable; (b) photograph of the core functioning part of the piezoelectric fatigue sensor; (c) and (d) photographs of a volunteer wearing the sensor with eyelid closed and open.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) (a) Schematic diagram of the piezoelectric device; (b) profile diagram of the central part of piezoelectric device; (c) schematic diagram of the piezoelectric device conformally deforming with the eyelid epidermis.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Schematic of geometrical relationship between the eyelid distance and end-to-end displacement of the sensor.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) (a) and (c) output voltage signals collected from in vivo test of a volunteer wearing the sensor; (b) and (d) theoretical predictions of the eyelid distance based on the measured data in (a) and (c).

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Dependence of the normalized peak voltage on the normalized end-to-end displacement of the sensor under different normalized blinking speed.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Scaling law for the normalized peak voltage and the normalized parameter ${\bar~\mu~_{33}}{n_{\rm~p}}{A_{\rm~p}}R/{n_{\rm~s}}{h_{\rm~p}}T$.

Copyright 2019 Science China Press Co., Ltd. 《中国科学》杂志社有限责任公司 版权所有

京ICP备18024590号-1