logo

SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 61, Issue 6: 060410(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9442-3

Review on flexible photonics/electronics integrated devices and fabrication strategy

More info
  • ReceivedMar 27, 2018
  • AcceptedApr 26, 2018
  • PublishedMay 15, 2018

Abstract

In recent years, to meet the greater demand for next generation electronic devices that are transplantable, lightweight and portable, flexible and large-scale integrated electronics attract much more attention have been of interest in both industry and academia. Organic electronics and stretchable inorganic electronics are the two major branches of flexible electronics. With the semiconductive and flexible properties of the organic semiconductor materials, flexible organic electronics have become a mainstay of our technology. Compared to organic electronics, stretchable and flexible inorganic electronics are fabricated via mechanical design with inorganic electronic components on flexible substrates, which have stretchability and flexibility to enable very large deformations without degradation of performance. This review summarizes the recent progress on fabrication strategies, such as hydrodynamic organic nanowire printing and inkjet-assisted nanotransfer printing of flexible organic electronics, and screen printing, soft lithography and transfer printing of flexible inorganic electronics. In addition, this review considers large-scale organic and inorganic flexible electronic systems and the future applications of flexible and stretchable electronics.


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by National Basic Research Program of China (973) (Grant No. 2015CB351904) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11625207, 11320101001, 11227801).


References

[1] Zardetto V, Brown T M, Reale A. Substrates for flexible electronics: a practical investigation on the electrical, film flexibility, optical, temperature, and solvent resistance properties. J Polym Sci B Polym Phys, 2011, 49: 638-648 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[2] Someya T, Sekitani T, Iba S. A large-area, flexible pressure sensor matrix with organic field-effect transistors for artificial skin applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2004, 101: 9966-9970 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[3] Yoon J, Baca A J, Park S I. Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs. Nat Mater, 2008, 7: 907-915 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[4] Ahn J H, Kim H S, Lee K J. Heterogeneous three-dimensional electronics by use of printed semiconductor nanomaterials. Science, 2006, 314: 1754-1757 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[5] Kaltenbrunner M, Sekitani T, Reeder J. An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics. Nature, 2013, 499: 458-463 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[6] Someya T, Bao Z, Malliaras G G. The rise of plastic bioelectronics. Nature, 2016, 540: 379-385 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[7] Kim D H, Lu N, Ma R. Epidermal Electronics. Science, 2011, 333: 838-843 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[8] Park S I, Ahn J H, Feng X. Theoretical and experimental studies of bending of inorganic electronic materials on plastic substrates. Adv Funct Mater, 2008, 18: 2673-2684 CrossRef Google Scholar

[9] Feng X, Yang B D, Liu Y. Stretchable ferroelectric nanoribbons with wavy configurations on elastomeric substrates. ACS Nano, 2011, 5: 3326-3332 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[10] Wang Y, Chen Y, Li H. Buckling-based method for measuring the strain-photonic coupling effect of GaAs nanoribbons. ACS Nano, 2016, 10: 8199-8206 CrossRef Google Scholar

[11] Imani S, Bandodkar A J, Mohan A V. A wearable chemical-electrophysiological hybrid biosensing system for real-time health and fitness monitoring. Nat Commun, 2016, 7: 11650 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[12] Schwartz G, Tee B C K, Mei J. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring. Nat Commun, 2013, 4: 1859 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[13] Gao W, Emaminejad S, Nyein H Y Y. Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis. Nature, 2016, 529: 509-514 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[14] Lee H, Choi T K, Lee Y B. A graphene-based electrochemical device with thermoresponsive microneedles for diabetes monitoring and therapy. Nat Nanotech, 2016, 11: 566-572 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[15] Koh A, Kang D, Xue Y, et al. A soft, wearable microfluidic device for the capture, storage, and colorimetric sensing of sweat. Science Transl Medicine, 2016, 8: 165. Google Scholar

[16] Li H, Xu Y, Li X. Epidermal Inorganic Optoelectronics for Blood Oxygen Measurement.. Adv Healthcare Mater, 2017, 6: 1601013 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[17] Chen Y, Lu S, Zhang S. Skin-like biosensor system via electrochemical channels for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring. Sci Adv, 2017, 3: e1701629 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[18] Webb R C, Ma Y, Krishnan S. Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow. Sci Adv, 2015, 1: e1500701-e1500701 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[19] Yokota T, Zalar P, Kaltenbrunner M. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin. Sci Adv, 2016, 2: e1501856-e1501856 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[20] Jang K I, Han S Y, Xu S. Rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics with adherent composite substrates for transcutaneous monitoring. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 4779 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[21] Lee C H, Ma Y, Jang K I. Soft core/shell packages for stretchable electronics. Adv Funct Mater, 2015, 25: 3698-3704 CrossRef Google Scholar

[22] Sekitani T, Nakajima H, Maeda H. Stretchable active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display using printable elastic conductors. Nat Mater, 2009, 8: 494-499 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[23] Chen J L, Liu C T. Technology advances in flexible displays and substrates. IEEE Access, 2013, 1: 150-158 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] Kim S, Kwon H J, Lee S. Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 3511-3516 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[25] Rogers J A, Bao Z, Baldwin K. From the Cover: Paper-like electronic displays: large-area rubber-stamped plastic sheets of electronics and microencapsulated electrophoretic inks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2001, 98: 4835-4840 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[26] Kim D H, Lu N, Ghaffari R. Materials for multifunctional balloon catheters with capabilities in cardiac electrophysiological mapping and ablation therapy. Nat Mater, 2011, 10: 316-323 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[27] Lee C H, Kim H, Harburg D V. Biological lipid membranes for on-demand, wireless drug delivery from thin, bioresorbable electronic implants. NPG Asia Mater, 2015, 7: e227 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[28] Briseno A L, Tseng R J, Ling M M. High-performance organic single-crystal transistors on flexible substrates. Adv Mater, 2006, 18: 2320-2324 CrossRef Google Scholar

[29] Khang D Y, Jiang H, Huang Y. A stretchable form of single-crystal silicon for high-performance electronics on rubber substrates. Science, 2006, 311: 208-212 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[30] Reuss R H, Chalamala B R, Moussessian A. Macroelectronics: perspectives on technology and applications. Proc IEEE, 2005, 93: 1239-1256 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Chiang C K, Fincher Jr C, Park Y W. Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene. Phys Rev Lett, 1977, 39: 1098-1101 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[32] Tsumura A, Koezuka H, Ando T. Macromolecular electronic device: field-effect transistor with a polythiophene thin film. Appl Phys Lett, 1986, 49: 1210-1212 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[33] Forrest S R. The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic. Nature, 2004, 428: 911-918 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[34] Tee B C K, Chortos A, Berndt A. A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor. Science, 2015, 350: 313-316 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[35] Park K S, Baek J, Park Y. Inkjet-assisted nanotransfer printing for large-scale integrated nanopatterns of various single-crystal organic materials. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 2874-2880 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[36] Kumagai S, Murakami H, Tsuzuku K. Solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid CMOS inverter exhibiting a high gain reaching 890. Org Electron, 2017, 48: 127-131 CrossRef Google Scholar

[37] Sun Y, Choi W M, Jiang H. Controlled buckling of semiconductor nanoribbons for stretchable electronics. Nat Nanotech, 2006, 1: 201-207 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[38] Kim J, Banks A, Cheng H. Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near-field communication. Small, 2015, 11: 906-912 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[39] Xu B, Akhtar A, Liu Y. An epidermal stimulation and sensing platform for sensorimotor prosthetic control, management of lower back exertion, and electrical muscle activation. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 4462-4471 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[40] Xu R, Lee J W, Pan T. Designing thin, ultrastretchable electronics with stacked circuits and elastomeric encapsulation materials. Adv Funct Mater, 2017, 27: 1604545 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[41] Tang C W, VanSlyke S A. Organic electroluminescent diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 1987, 51: 913-915 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[42] Hoofman R J O M, de Haas M P, Siebbeles L D A. Highly mobile electrons and holes on isolated chains of the semiconducting polymer poly(phenylene vinylene). Nature, 1998, 392: 54-56 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[43] Afzali A, Dimitrakopoulos C D, Breen T L. High-performance, solution-processed organic thin film transistors from a novel pentacene precursor. J Am Chem Soc, 2002, 124: 8812-8813 CrossRef Google Scholar

[44] Horowitz G, Peng X Z, Fichou D. Role of the semiconductor/insulator interface in the characteristics of $\pi$-conjugated-oligomer-based thin-film transistors. Synth Met, 1992, 51: 419-424 CrossRef Google Scholar

[45] Kawasaki N, Kalb W L, Mathis T. Flexible picene thin film field-effect transistors with parylene gate dielectric and their physical properties. Appl Phys Lett, 2010, 96: 113305 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[46] Park Y, Han K S, Lee B H. High performance n-type organic-inorganic nanohybrid semiconductors for flexible electronic devices. Org Electron, 2011, 12: 348-352 CrossRef Google Scholar

[47] Gburek B, Wagner V. Influence of the semiconductor thickness on the charge carrier mobility in P3HT organic field-effect transistors in top-gate architecture on flexible substrates. Org Electron, 2010, 11: 814-819 CrossRef Google Scholar

[48] Uno M, Nakayama K, Soeda J. High-speed flexible organic field-effect transistors with a 3D structure. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 3047-3051 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[49] Min S Y, Kim T S, Kim B J. Large-scale organic nanowire lithography and electronics. Nat Commun, 2013, 4: 1773 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[50] Ahn J H, Kim H S, Menard E. Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon. Appl Phys Lett, 2007, 90: 213501 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[51] Kim D H, Song J, Choi W M. From the Cover: Materials and noncoplanar mesh designs for integrated circuits with linear elastic responses to extreme mechanical deformations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2008, 105: 18675-18680 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[52] Ko H C, Shin G, Wang S. Curvilinear electronics formed using silicon membrane circuits and elastomeric transfer elements. Small, 2009, 5: 2703-2709 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[53] Kim D H, Xiao J, Song J. Stretchable, curvilinear electronics based on inorganic materials. Adv Mater, 2010, 22: 2108-2124 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[54] Ma Y, Feng X, Rogers J A. Design and application of 'J-shaped' stress-strain behavior in stretchable electronics: a review. Lab Chip, 2017, 17: 1689-1704 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[55] Meitl M A, Zhu Z T, Kumar V. Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp. Nat Mater, 2006, 5: 33-38 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[56] Baca A J, Ahn J H, Sun Y. Semiconductor wires and ribbons for high-performance flexible electronics. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2008, 47: 5524-5542 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[57] Feng X, Meitl M A, Bowen A M. Competing fracture in kinetically controlled transfer printing. Langmuir, 2007, 23: 12555-12560 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[58] Kim S, Wu J, Carlson A. Microstructured elastomeric surfaces with reversible adhesion and examples of their use in deterministic assembly by transfer printing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2010, 107: 17095-17100 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[59] Huang Y, Zheng N, Cheng Z. Direct laser writing-based programmable transfer printing via bioinspired shape memory reversible adhesive. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016, 8: 35628-35633 CrossRef Google Scholar

[60] Chen H, Feng X, Huang Y. Experiments and viscoelastic analysis of peel test with patterned strips for applications to transfer printing. J Mech Phys Solids, 2013, 61: 1737-1752 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[61] Cai S, Zhang C, Li H. Surface evolution and stability transition of silicon wafer subjected to nano-diamond grinding. AIP Adv, 2017, 7: 035221 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[62] Thorsen T, Maerkl S J, Quake S R. Microfluidic large-scale integration. Science, 2002, 298: 580-584 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[63] Zhang L, Di C-a, Yu G. Solution processed organic field-effect transistors and their application in printed logic circuits. J Mater Chem, 2010, 20: 7059-7073 CrossRef Google Scholar

[64] Mishra A, B?uerle P. Small molecule organic semiconductors on the move: promises for future solar energy technology. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2012, 51: 2020-2067 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[65] Lin P, Yan F. Organic thin-film transistors for chemical and biological sensing. Adv Mater, 2012, 24: 34-51 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[66] Wang C H, Hsieh C Y, Hwang J C. Flexible organic thin-film transistors with silk fibroin as the gate dielectric. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 1630-1634 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[67] Bettinger C J, Becerril H A, Kim D H. Microfluidic arrays for rapid characterization of organic thin-film transistor performance. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 1257-1261 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[68] Knopfmacher O, Hammock M L, Appleton A L. Highly stable organic polymer field-effect transistor sensor for selective detection in the marine environment. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 2954 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[69] Pandey M, Pandey S S, Nagamatsu S. Solvent driven performance in thin floating-films of PBTTT for organic field effect transistor: role of macroscopic orientation. Org Electron, 2017, 43: 240-246 CrossRef Google Scholar

[70] Soeda J, Matsui H, Okamoto T. Highly oriented polymer semiconductor films compressed at the surface of ionic liquids for high-performance polymeric organic field-effect transistors. Adv Mater, 2014, 26: 6430-6435 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[71] McCulloch I, Heeney M, Bailey C. Liquid-crystalline semiconducting polymers with high charge-carrier mobility. Nat Mater, 2006, 5: 328-333 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[72] Park J U, Hardy M, Kang S J. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing. Nat Mater, 2007, 6: 782-789 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[73] Lee S, Moon G D, Jeong U. Continuous production of uniform poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanofibers by electrospinning and their electrical properties. J Mater Chem, 2009, 19: 743-748 CrossRef Google Scholar

[74] Liu H, Reccius C H, Craighead H G. Single electrospun regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofiber field-effect transistor. Appl Phys Lett, 2005, 87: 253106 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[75] Singh M, Haverinen H M, Dhagat P. Inkjet printing-process and its applications. Adv Mater, 2010, 22: 673-685 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[76] Hwang J K, Cho S, Dang J M. Direct nanoprinting by liquid-bridge-mediated nanotransfer moulding. Nat Nanotech, 2010, 5: 742-748 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[77] Liang J, Tong K, Pei Q. A water-based silver-nanowire screen-print ink for the fabrication of stretchable conductors and wearable thin-film transistors. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 5986-5996 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[78] Moonen P F, Yakimets I, Huskens J. Fabrication of transistors on flexible substrates: from mass-printing to high-resolution alternative lithography strategies. Adv Mater, 2012, 24: 5526-5541 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[79] Kwon S, Kim W, Kim H C. P-148: polymer light-emitting diodes using the dip coating method on flexible fiber substrates for wearable displays. SID Symposium Digest Technical Papers, 2015, 46: 1753-1755 CrossRef Google Scholar

[80] S?ndergaard R, H?sel M, Angmo D. Roll-to-roll fabrication of polymer solar cells. Mater Today, 2012, 15: 36-49 CrossRef Google Scholar

[81] Hyun W J, Secor E B, Hersam M C. High-resolution patterning of graphene by screen printing with a silicon stencil for highly flexible printed electronics. Adv Mater, 2015, 27: 109-115 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[82] Krebs F C, Alstrup J, Spanggaard H. Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2004, 83: 293-300 CrossRef Google Scholar

[83] Qin D, Xia Y, Whitesides G M. Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning. Nat Protoc, 2010, 5: 491-502 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[84] Kumar A, Whitesides G M. Features of gold having micrometer to centimeter dimensions can be formed through a combination of stamping with an elastomeric stamp and an alkanethiol “ink” followed by chemical etching. Appl Phys Lett, 1993, 63: 2002-2004 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[85] Xia Y, McClelland J J, Gupta R. Replica molding using polymeric materials: a practical step toward nanomanufacturing. Adv Mater, 1997, 9: 147-149 CrossRef Google Scholar

[86] Zhao X M, Xia Y, Whitesides G M. Fabrication of three-dimensional micro-structures: microtransfer molding. Adv Mater, 1996, 8: 837-840 CrossRef Google Scholar

[87] Perl A, Reinhoudt D N, Huskens J. Microcontact printing: limitations and achievements. Adv Mater, 2009, 21: 2257-2268 CrossRef Google Scholar

[88] Kooy N, Rahman N, Mohamed K. Patterning of multi-leveled microstructures on flexible polymer substrate using roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography. In: Prcoeedings of the 35th IEEE/CPMT International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference (IEMT), Ipoh, 2012. 1--5. Google Scholar

[89] Chou S Y, Krauss P R, Renstrom P J. Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers. Appl Phys Lett, 1995, 67: 3114-3116 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[90] Haisma J, Verheijen M, Heuvel K V D. Mold-assisted nanolithography: a process for reliable pattern replication. J Vac Sci Technol B, 1996, 14: 4124-4128 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[91] Ahn S H, Guo L J. Large-area roll-to-roll and roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography: a step toward high-throughput application of continuous nanoimprinting. ACS Nano, 2009, 3: 2304-2310 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[92] Meitl M A, Zhu Z T, Kumar V, et al. Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp. Nat Mater, 2005, 5: 33--38. Google Scholar

[93] Menard E, Meitl M A, Sun Y G. Micro- and nanopatterning techniques for organic electronic and optoelectronic systems. Chem Rev, 2007, 107: 1117-1160 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[94] Baughman R H, Zakhidov A A, de Heer W A. Carbon nanotubes--the route toward applications. Science, 2002, 297: 787-792 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[95] Bj\"{o}rk P, Holmstr\"{o}m S, Ingan\"{a}s O. Soft lithographic printing of patterns of stretched DNA and DNA/electronic polymer wires by surface-energy modification and transfer. Small, 2006, 2: 1068-1074 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[96] Smythe E J, Dickey M D, Whitesides G M. A technique to transfer metallic nanoscale patterns to small and non-planar surfaces. ACS Nano, 2009, 3: 59-65 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[97] Lu B W, Chen Y, Ou D P. Ultra-flexible piezoelectric devices integrated with heart to harvest the biomechanical energy. Sci Rep, 2015, 5: 16065 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[98] Dagdeviren C, Yang B D, Su Y. Conformal piezoelectric energy harvesting and storage from motions of the heart, lung, and diaphragm. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2014, 111: 1927-1932 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[99] Park S I, Xiong Y, Kim R H. Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays. Science, 2009, 325: 977-981 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[100] Kim D H, Ahn J H, Choi W M. Stretchable and foldable silicon integrated circuits. Science, 2008, 320: 507-511 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[101] Saeidpourazar R, Li R, Li Y. Laser-driven micro transfer placement of prefabricated microstructures. J Microelectromech Syst, 2012, 21: 1049-1058 CrossRef Google Scholar

[102] Eisenhaure J D, Sang I R, Al-Okaily A A M. The use of shape memory polymers for microassembly by transfer printing. J Microelectromech Syst, 2014, 23: 1012-1014 CrossRef Google Scholar

[103] Reese C, Roberts M, Ling M M, et al. Organic thin film transistors. Mater Today, 2004, 7: 20--27. Google Scholar

[104] Bettinger C J, Bao Z. Organic thin-film transistors fabricated on resorbable biomaterial substrates. Adv Mater, 2010, 22: 651-655 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[105] Klauk H, Halik M, Zschieschang U. Flexible organic complementary circuits. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2005, 52: 618-622 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[106] Jung Y H, Chang T H, Zhang H. High-performance green flexible electronics based on biodegradable cellulose nanofibril paper. Nat Commun, 2015, 6: 7170 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[107] Grimsdale A C, Leok Chan K, Martin R E. Synthesis of light-emitting conjugated polymers for applications in electroluminescent devices. Chem Rev, 2009, 109: 897-1091 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[108] Roberts M E, Sokolov A N, Bao Z. Material and device considerations for organic thin-film transistor sensors. J Mater Chem, 2009, 19: 3351-3363 CrossRef Google Scholar

[109] Thompson B C, Fréchet J M J. Polymer-fullerene composite solar cells. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2008, 47: 58-77 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[110] Zhou L, Wanga A, Wu S C. All-organic active matrix flexible display. Appl Phys Lett, 2006, 88: 083502 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[111] Mei J, Kim D H, Ayzner A L. Siloxane-terminated solubilizing side chains: bringing conjugated polymer backbones closer and boosting hole mobilities in thin-film transistors. J Am Chem Soc, 2011, 133: 20130-20133 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[112] Sun S, Lan L, Xiao P. Flexible organic field-effect transistors with high-reliability gate insulators prepared by a room-temperature, electrochemical-oxidation process. RSC Adv, 2015, 5: 15695-15699 CrossRef Google Scholar

[113] Lee B H, Hsu B B, Patel S N, et al. Flexible organic transistors with controlled nanomorphology. Nano Lett, 2015, 16: 314--319. Google Scholar

[114] Kelley T W, Muyres D V, Baude P F, et al. High performance organic thin film transistors. MRS Online Proceedings Library Archive, 2003, 771: 169--179. Google Scholar

[115] Fukuda K, Takeda Y, Yoshimura Y. Fully-printed high-performance organic thin-film transistors and circuitry on one-micron-thick polymer films. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 4147 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[116] Mannsfeld S C B, Tee B C K, Stoltenberg R M. Highly sensitive flexible pressure sensors with microstructured rubber dielectric layers. Nat Mater, 2010, 9: 859-864 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[117] Tee B C K, Chortos A, Dunn R R. Tunable flexible pressure sensors using microstructured elastomer geometries for intuitive electronics. Adv Funct Mater, 2014, 24: 5427-5434 CrossRef Google Scholar

[118] Sekitani T, Yokota T, Zschieschang U. Organic nonvolatile memory transistors for flexible sensor arrays. Science, 2009, 326: 1516-1519 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[119] Liang J, Li L, Pei Q, et al. A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes. Sci Rep, 2014, 4: 4307. Google Scholar

[120] Kim W, Kwon S, Lee S M, et al. Soft fabric-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes. Org Electron Phys Mater Appl, 2013, 14: 3007--3013. Google Scholar

[121] Han T H, Lee Y, Choi M R. Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode. Nat Photon, 2012, 6: 105-110 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[122] Suzuki M, Fukagawa H, Nakajima Y, et al. A 5.8--in. phosphorescent color AMOLED display fabricated by ink-jet printing on plastic substrate. J Soc Inf Display, 2012, 17: 1037--1042. Google Scholar

[123] Madaria A R, Kumar A, Ishikawa F N. Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique. Nano Res, 2010, 3: 564-573 CrossRef Google Scholar

[124] Ko H C, Stoykovich M P, Song J. A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics. Nature, 2008, 454: 748-753 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[125] Kim D H, Viventi J, Amsden J J. Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics. Nat Mater, 2010, 9: 511-517 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[126] Yeo W H, Kim Y S, Lee J. Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin. Adv Mater, 2013, 25: 2773-2778 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[127] Hattori Y, Falgout L, Lee W. Multifunctional skin-like electronics for quantitative, clinical monitoring of cutaneous wound healing. Adv Healthcare Mater, 2014, 3: 1597-1607 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[128] Huang X, Liu Y, Cheng H. Materials and designs for wireless epidermal sensors of hydration and strain. Adv Funct Mater, 2014, 24: 3846-3854 CrossRef Google Scholar

[129] Chen Y, Lu B, Chen Y. Biocompatible and ultra-flexible inorganic strain sensors attached to skin for long-term vital signs monitoring. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2016, 37: 496-499 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[130] Chen Y, Lu B, Chen Y. Breathable and stretchable temperature sensors inspired by skin. Sci Rep, 2015, 5: 11505 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[131] Liu Y, Norton J J S, Qazi R. Epidermal mechano-acoustic sensing electronics for cardiovascular diagnostics and human-machine interfaces. Sci Adv, 2016, 2: e1601185-e1601185 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[132] Hu X, Krull P, de Graff B. Stretchable inorganic-semiconductor electronic systems. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 2933-2936 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[133] Xu J, Shen G. A flexible integrated photodetector system driven by on-chip microsupercapacitors. Nano Energy, 2015, 13: 131-139 CrossRef Google Scholar

[134] Gao L, Zhang Y, Malyarchuk V. Epidermal photonic devices for quantitative imaging of temperature and thermal transport characteristics of the skin. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 4938 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[135] Yu C, Li Y, Zhang X. Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2014, 111: 12998-13003 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[136] Shin G, Gomez A M, Al-Hasani R. Flexible near-field wireless optoelectronics as subdermal implants for broad applications in optogenetics. Neuron, 2017, 93: 509-521.e3 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[137] Xu L, Gutbrod S R, Bonifas A P. 3D multifunctional integumentary membranes for spatiotemporal cardiac measurements and stimulation across the entire epicardium. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 3329 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[138] Son D, Koo J H, Song J K. Stretchable carbon nanotube charge-trap floating-gate memory and logic devices for wearable electronics. ACS Nano, 2015, 9: 5585-5593 CrossRef Google Scholar

[139] Fang H, Yu K J, Gloschat C. Capacitively coupled arrays of multiplexed flexible silicon transistors for long-term cardiac electrophysiology. Nat Biomed Eng, 2017, 1: 0038 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[140] Jang K I, Li K, Chung H U. Self-assembled three dimensional network designs for soft electronics. Nat Commun, 2017, 8: 15894 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    (Color online) A brief timeline of the development of flexible electronics based on organic semiconductor materials and stretchable and flexible inorganic devices: first organic semiconductor material [31]@Copyright 1977 American Physical Society; first organic field effect transistor [32]@Copyright 1986 American Institute of Physics; organic electronics review [37]@Copyright 2004 Springer Nature; skin inspired sensors [43]@Copyright 2015 American Association for the Advancement of Science; large-scale integrated circuits [44]@Copyright 2016 John Wiley and Sons; organic-inorganic hybrid CMOS [45]@Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V; first flexible inorganic electronic [46]@Copyright 2006 Springer Nature; flexible near-field communication [47]@Copyright 2014 John Wiley and Sons; epidermal electronics for diagnostics [48]@Copyright 2015 John Wiley and Sons; flexible and stacked circuits [49]@Copyright 2016 John Wiley and Sons.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) The method of fabricating large-scale organic electronics. (a) Photograph of the thin films formed at liquid substrate using S-FTM and D-FTM, and schematic for possible mechanism for macroscope orientation in D-FTM (left); device configuration of the fabricated OFET and output OFET characteristics of PBTTT-C14 films prepared by D-FTM parallel, D-FTM perpendicular and S-FTM (right) [69]@Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V. (b) Schematic diagram of the home-built ONW printer and NW printing process. Field emission scanning electron microscope image showing cross section of well-aligned polyvinylcabazol (PVK) NW, which forms a perfect circle (top); schematic illustration of the process to fabricate organic FET with nanoscale channel length and channel width and scanning electron microscope images of P3TH:PEO-blend NW and nano-sized electrode gap (down) [42]@Copyright 2013 Springer Nature. And (c) schematic illustration of the inkjet-NTP process and schematic illustration of an ink droplet filling the recessed nanochannels of a selected area of the mold through capillary-driven flow. Schematic illustration of a liquid bridge formed by a polar liquid layer between the nanowires and a substrate (inset); a photographic image of the large-scale integrated electronic devices composed of FET, inverter, and p-n diode arrays made of single-crystal organic nanowires [44]@Copyright 2016 John Wiley and Sons.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) (a) Scheme of the screen-printing process [77]Copyright 2016, John Wiley and Sons. (b) Rotary screen printing [80]@Copyright 2012 Elsevier Ltd. (c) Screen-printed AgNW patterns on flexible PET substrate [77]@Copyright 2016 John Wiley and Sons. (d) Measured resistance of the screen-printed AgNW lines at different length and with various line widths [77]@Copyright 2016 John Wiley and Sons. (e) Screen-printed graphene line with the width of 40 $\mu$m [81]@Copyright 2014 John Wiley and Sons.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) (a) Fabrication steps of $\mu$CP [87]@Copyright 2009 John Wiley and Sons. (b) Comparison of a typical T-NIL and UV-NIL process [88]@Copyright 2012 IEEE. (c) Roll-to-roll UV-NIL, (i) resist coating and (ii) imprinting [89]. (d) Photograph of the 3-level patterned wafer master[88]@Copyright 2012 IEEE.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) (a) Transfer printing via microstructured elastomeric[58]@Copyright 2010 National Academy of Sciences; (b) adhesion test of transfer printing via microstructured elastomeric[58]@Copyright 2010 National Academy of Sciences; (c) laser-driven transfer printing[101]@Copyright 2012 IEEE; and (d) diagram of the automated printing setup[59]@Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Flexible OFETs. (a) Optical image and schematics of the fabricated OFET sensor on a flexible polyimide substrate (left). Transfer characteristics of $I_{\rm~sd}$ vs. applied liquid-gate voltage $V_{\rm~lg}$ in DI water (right). The flexible OFET is alternately exposed to DI water and seawater [68]@Copyright 2014 Springer Nature. protectłinebreak(b) Schematic of the pentacene OTFT with silk fibroin as the gate dielectric and photograph of the rollable pentacene OTFT (left). Output characteristics, transfer and leakage current characteristics (right) [66]@Copyright 2011 John Wiley and Sons. (c) Schematic diagram of the flexible OFETs, and chemical structures of pentacene and Cytop (left). The leakage current density of AlOx:Nd/Cytop versus curvatures (middle); inset: the image of equipments in bending test. Transfer characteristics of the flexible pentacene OFET (right) under bending conditions; every curve includes forward and reverse sweeps [112]@Copyright 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. (d) Schematic device architecture of the flexible organic transistor with controlled nanomorphology (left). Transfer curves of the flexible device with the $n$-PVP/SiO$_2$ (2 nm) dielectric fabricated on transparent polyimide substrate (middle). Mobility plots as a function of bending distance under tensile and compressive bending stress (right) [113]@Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) Flexible organic systems on large scale. (a) Large-area single P3HT:PEO-blend NW FET array (7 cm $\times$ 7 cm) with $\sim$ 300 nm channel length (144 bottom-contact devices) and histogram of mobility for large-area P3HT:PEO-blend NW FET array with an average of 3.8 $\pm$ 1.6 cm$^2$V$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$. Large-area single P3HT:PEO-blend NW FET array on polyarylate (PAR) substrate and input-output voltage characteristic for complementary inverter circuit based on P3HT:PEO-blend NWs and N2200:PEO-blend NWs. Optical image of inverter array and schematic illustration of an inverter (down) [42]@Copyright 2013 Springer Nature. (b) A photograph of organic TFT devices on 1-$\mu$m-thick parylene-C films, organic device films conforming to a human knee and cross-section diagram of a thin organic TFT devices (top). Top-view photograph of a completed 10 cm $\times$ 10 cm fully printed 20 $\times$ 20 TFT array fabricated on an ultra-flexible parylene-C film, circuit diagram of the TFT array and flexible TFT array sheet conforming to a human throat (middle). Photograph of fabricated unipolar organic diode-load inverter circuits and circuit diagram of the inverter device. Static transfer characteristics of the inverter and small-signal gain as a function of input voltage (VIN). The black solid line indicates the characteristics without strain and the red solid lines indicate those of circuits under 50% compressive strain (down) [115]@Copyright 2014 Springer Nature. And (c) schematic of the function of a biological somatosensory systems, voltage pulses are generated in the skin and transported to the brain. DiTact is composed of a pressure-sensitive tactile element and an organic ring oscillator (top). Optogenetic pulses are used to stimulate live neurons. Image and circuit schematic of a model hand with DiTact sensors on the fingertips connected with stretchable interconnects (middle). Setup of the optoelectronic stimulation system for pressure-dependent neuron stimulation (down) [43]@Copyright 2015 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) (a) Schematic illustration of light scattering by nanoparticles in the SWNT/AgNW-nanocomposite (left), photographs of a nanocomposite film as prepared (middle), current efficiency-luminance (right) [119]@Copyright 2014 Springer Nature. (b) Schematic diagram of the cross-section of the planarized fabric substrates and the designed noninverted top-emitting OLEDs, photographs of the fabricated OLEDs when wrinkling the sample and operating the sample at 4.5 V (left), current density-voltage characteristics and bending image (middle), current efficiency-current density characteristics and optical microscope image of emitting cells operated at 5 mA/cm2 (right) [120]@Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V. (c) PLED structures of devices using a fiber substrate (left) and a photograph of the fabricated device on a fiber substrate using the dip coating method (right) [79]@Copyright 2015 John Wiley and Sons. (d) Schematic illustration of a hole-injection process from a graphene anode via a self-organized HIL with work-function gradient (GraHIL) to the NPB layer (left), current efficiencies of phosphorescent OLED devices using 4L-G-HNO3 and ITO anodes (right) [121]@Copyright 2012 Springer Nature. (e) Cross-section diagram of the proposed flexible OLED display device composed of a LTCF, TFE, and a RGB OLED microcavity (left), the comparison of the measured data for the reflectance produced by only color filters and LTCFs with an OLED microcavity to verify the effect of a destructive interference of the microcavity (middle), optical image of a foldable/seamless OLED display (right) [24]@Copyright 2011 John Wiley and Sons. And (f) schematic top view of one pixel of flexible AMOLED display panel (left), photographs of electrophosphorescence from RGB subpixels of the display (middle) and display demonstration (right) [122]@Copyright 2012 John Wiley and Sons.

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) (a) Schematic illustration of transfer process of conductive electrodes of silver nanowire films [123]@Copyright 2010, Springer Nature; (b) schematic illustration of fabrication process of high stretchability device [51]@Copyright 2008 National Academy of Sciences; (c) SEM image of an array of CMOS inverters [51]@Copyright 2008 National Academy of Sciences; (d) an array integrated on a hemispherical glass substrate [124]@Copyright 2008 Springer Nature; (e) an electrode array with a mesh design on a dissolvable silk substrate [125]@Copyright 2010 Springer Nature; (f) SEM image of a multifunctional electronics conformal contacting with the skin [126]@Copyright 2013 John Wiley and Sons; (g) peeling rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics off the skin [20]@Copyright 2014 Springer Nature; and (h) photo illustrates the conformity of a device for near-field communication[47]@Copyright 2014 John Wiley and Son.

  • Figure 10

    (Color online) (a) Device design (left) and schematic illustration (middle) of a device able to work on human wounds to provide data of surgical wound healing (right) [127]@Copyright 2014 John Wiley and Sons. (b) A multimodal wireless epidermal sensor. (left) Exploded view schematic diagram and images of the sensor on the skin. (middle) Representative variations in dielectric properties of the skin for frequencies between 1 MHz to 1 GHz, evaluated using a coaxial cable probe. (right) Minimal variations occur between 160 MHz to 200 MHz [128]@Copyright 2014 John Wiley and Sons.protectłinebreak (c) Schematic diagram (left), images (middle) and experiment result of pulse wave from radial artery(right) of a flexible sensor on the skin [129]@Copyright 2016 IEEE. And (d) schematic illustration (left), images (middle) and Resistance change while the arm twisting and rotating (right) of water proof and vapor permeable property of flexible devices [130]@Copyright 2015 Springer Nature.

  • Figure 11

    (Color online) (a) A flexible LED arrays wrapped on a human thumb [132]@Copyright 2011 John Wiley and Sons. (b) A microsupercapacitor used for photo detector system [133]@Copyright 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. protectłinebreak(c) Skin-like flexible photonic device with colorimetric temperature indicators deformed in a twisting motion [134]@Copyright 2014 Springer Nature. (d) The schematic diagram (left) and images (middle) of adaptive flexible optoelectronic camouflage systems. The simple pattern displayed on the devices while bent (right) [135]@Copyright 2014 National Academy of Sciences. (e) Schematic diagram (left) and images (middle) of a near-field wireless optoelectronics device. Images of water tank with single-loop antenna, working devices under the water, and a swimming mouse that has a working device (right) [136]@Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc. (f) Schematic diagram (left), images (middle) of epidermal optoelectronic devices and SpO2 and pulse rate (right) [16]@Copyright 2017 John Wiley and Sons.

  • Figure 12

    (Color online) (a) Schematic illustration of an integrated wearable platform based on s-SWNT [138]@Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society. (b) (left) Electrical connecting sketch of device. (middle) Image of device when the heart relaxes in diastoles. (right) Output voltage measured by AD/DA card [97]@Copyright 2015 Springer Nature. (c) An exploded-view schematic (left, highlighting the key functional layers) and a photograph (middle) of a completed capacitively coupled flexible sensing system with 396 nodes in a slightly bent state. (right) A photograph of a flexible capacitively coupled sensing electronic system on a Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart [139]@Copyright 2017 Springer Nature. protectłinebreak(d) Electrophysiological recordings with inset images of the low modulus compliant system on the skin: electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG), electrooculogram (EOG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) [140]@Copyright 2017 Springer Nature. (e) (left) Schematic of blood glucose monitoring system on-skin. (middle) The biosensor completely conforms to the skin surface. (right) Results of blood glucose measured by using a plasma blood test with a vein detained needle (red) and blood glucose monitoring system on-skin (blue) during the OGTT [17]. And (f) (left) planar view optical image of multifunctional device with skin-like physical characteristics and capabilities in both sensing and stimulation. (right) Images of a device mounted on the forearm, with examples under stretching, compressing, and peeling-off [48]@Copyright 2015 John Wiley and Sons.

Copyright 2019 Science China Press Co., Ltd. 《中国科学》杂志社有限责任公司 版权所有

京ICP备18024590号-1