SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 62 , Issue 3 : 032104(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9462-0

Identity-based public auditing for cloud storage systems against malicious auditors via blockchain

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  • ReceivedFeb 26, 2018
  • AcceptedMay 22, 2018
  • PublishedJan 24, 2019


Cloud storage systems provide users with convenient data storage services, which allow users to access and update outsourced data remotely. However, these cloud storage services do not guarantee the integrity of the data that users store in the cloud. Thus, public auditing is necessary, in which a third-party auditor (TPA) is delegated to audit the integrity of the outsourced data. This system allows users to enjoy on-demand cloud storage services without the burden of continually auditing their data integrity. However, certain TPAs might deviate from the public auditing protocol and/or collude with the cloud servers. In this article, we propose an identity-based public auditing (IBPA) scheme for cloud storage systems. In IBPA, the nonces in a blockchain are employed to construct unpredictable and easily verified challenge messages, thereby preventing the forging of auditing results by malicious TPAs to deceive users. Users need only to verify the TPAs' auditing results in batches to ensure the integrity of their data that are stored in the cloud. A detailed security analysis shows that IBPA can preserve data integrity against various attacks. In addition, a comprehensive performance evaluation demonstrates that IBPA is feasible and efficient.


This work was supported by National Key RD Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFB- 0802000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61370203).


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) System model.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Simplified blockchain.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Procedure for the setup phase.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Procedure for the audit phase.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Public blockchain.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) (a) Computation time on the user side versus the number of data blocks; (b) computation time on the TPA side versus the number of data blocks.

  • Table 1   Log file
    t Nonce D $(S,T,\mu,y)$ Auditing results
    $t_{1}$ ${\rm~nonce}_{1}$ $D_{1}$ $(S_{1},T_{1},\mu_{1},y_{1})$ 1/0
    $t_{2}$ ${\rm~nonce}_{2}$ $D_{2}$ $(S_{2},T_{2},\mu_{2},y_{2})$ 1/0
  • Table 2   Notations for operations/implications
    Symbol Corresponding operation/implication
    $M$ The point multiplication operation in $G_{1}$
    $E$ The exponentiation operation in $G_{2}$
    $P$ The pairing operation
    $|x|$ The number of bits of $x$
  • Table 3   Comparison of costs
    Scheme User's computational cost TPA's computational cost TPA's communication cost
    IBRDIC [32] $(n~+~2)E$ $(n~+~3)E$ + $(n~+~1)P$ $|~m~|$ + $2|~G_{1}~|$
    FIBDIA [33] $nM~+~4nE$ $(4n~+~1)E$ + $(n~+~2)P$ $|~m~|$ + $3|~G~|$
    Ours $(n~+~4)M~+~3P$ $(n~+~1)M~+~3P$ $|~Z_{q}~|$ + 3$|~G_{1}~|$
  • Table 4   Comparison of security properties
    Security IBRDIC[32] FIBDIA[33] Ours
    Resistance against replacement attacks Y Y Y
    Resistance against forgery attacks Y N Y
    Resistance against malicious auditors N N Y

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