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SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 61, Issue 8: 080405(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9478-1

Fabrication of InP-based monolithically integrated laser transmitters

Song LIANG1,2,3,*, Dan LU1,2,3, Lingjuan ZHAO1,2,3,*, Hongliang ZHU1,2,3, Baojun WANG1,2,3, Daibing ZHOU1,2,3, Wei WANG1,2,3
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  • ReceivedFeb 18, 2018
  • AcceptedMay 16, 2018
  • PublishedJul 9, 2018

Abstract

InP-based photonic integrated circuits (PICs) have aroused great interest in recent years to meet the needs of future high-capacity and high-performance optical systems. With the advantages of small size, low power consumption, low cost, high reliability, InP-based PICs are promising solutions to replace the multiple discrete devices used in various systems. In this paper, we will review the design, fabrication, key integration technology and performance of several kinds of InP-based monolithically integrated transmitters developed in our group in recent years. Particular attention will be paid to the electro-absorption modulated laser (EML), multi-wavelength distributed feedback (DFB) laser arrays, widely tunable distributed reflector (DBR) lasers and their arrays, integrated amplified feedback lasers (AFL), and few-mode transmitters.


Acknowledgment

The work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant Nos. 61635010, 61474112, 61574137, 61320106013, 61335009, 61321063, 61674134, 61274071), National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFB0402301), National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (Grant No. 2013AA014502), and National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Grant No. 2014CB340102).


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Schematic material structure of an EML fabricated using our novel process.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Typical P-I characteristic (a) and optical spectrum (b) of an EML [16]@Copyright 2018 IEEE.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Eye diagrams of an EML at 10 Gb/s (a) and 20 Gb/s (b) modulations in BTB configuration [16]@Copyright 2018 IEEE.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) (a) PL spectra and (b) peak wavelength of the SAG MQWs; (c) laser spectra and (d) emission wavelengths and wavelength residues with respect to corresponding linear fitting values of DFB lasers in an array fabricated by SAG of MQWs [21]@Copyright 2013 Elsevier.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) A ten-channel EML laser array fabricated by SAG of MQWs [25]@Copyright 2017 Elsevier.

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) (a) Schematic process of SAG of upper SCH layer; (b) schematic structure of fabricated laser array.

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) Measured spectra and laser wavelengths of the laser arrays fabricated by SAG of SCH layer,protect łinebreak (a) and (b) are for the 0.8 nm arrays; (c) and (d) are for the 1.25 nm laser arrays [27]@Copyright 2012 OSA.

  • Figure 10

    (Color online) (a) Optical graph of a laser array, (b) typical optical spectrum, (c) emission wavelength andprotect łinebreak (d) wavelength residue with respect to linear fitting values [29]@Copyright 2016 IEEE.

  • Figure 11

    (Color online) (a) Microscope graph of a laser array. Two of the fabrication processes are shown in (b) and (c), respectively [31]@Copyright 2015 IEEE.

  • Figure 12

    (Color online) 12 Light output (a) and (b), spectra (c) and wavelength (d) properties of the laser array [31]@Copyright 2015 IEEE.

  • Figure 13

    (Color online) (a) Optical graph of a DBR laser and shape of a mask for the butt-joint growth; (b) SEM picture of a butt-joint interface; (c) tuning properties; (d) typical spectra [39]@Copyright 2014 IEEE.

  • Figure 14

    (Color online) (a) Small signal modulation response of the DBR laser; (b) typical 10-Gb/s eye diagrams [39]@Copyright 2014 IEEE.

  • Figure 15

    (Color online) A Ti heater integrated DBR laser [42]@Copyright 2016 IEEE.

  • Figure 16

    (Color online) (a) Wavelength tuning and (b) output power properties of the heater integrated DBR laser [42]@Copyright 2016 IEEE.

  • Figure 17

    (Color online) Light output properties of InGaAlAs (a) and InGaAsP (b) DBR lasers [45]@Copyright 2017 OSA.

  • Figure 18

    (Color online) Direct modulation response of InGaAlAs (a), (b), (c) and InGaAsP (d), (e), (f) DBR lasers [45]@Copyright 2017 OSA.

  • Figure 19

    (Color online) (a) Schematic structure and microscope graph of an EAM modulated DBR laser; (b) PL spectra of materials in different device sections [46]@Copyright 2014 OSA.

  • Figure 20

    (Color online) (a) Tuning and (b) output power properties of the EAM modulated DBR laser [46]@Copyright 2014 OSA.

  • Figure 21

    (Color online) (a) Static extinction and (b) small signal modulation properties of the EAM [46]@Copyright 2014 OSA.

  • Figure 22

    (Color online) Eye diagrams at 10 Gb/s modulation.

  • Figure 23

    (Color online) (a) Optical graph of a DBR laser array; (b) light output power and (c) tuning properties of the array [47]@Copyright 2016 IEEE.

  • Figure 24

    (Color online) 10-Gb/s eye diagrams in (a) BTB configuration and (b) after 50 km fiber transmission.

  • Figure 25

    (Color online) (a) Schematic diagram of an AFL; (b) typical dual mode optical spectrum [51]@Copyright 2015 IEEE.

  • Figure 26

    (Color online) (a) Frequency down-converted (by 24 GHz) photonic microwave spectrum corresponding to 50–72 GHz signal; (b) RF power variation and $-$3-dB linewidth of the photonic microwave generated from a 100G-AFL [51]@Copyright 2015 IEEE.

  • Figure 27

    (Color online) (a) The temporal waveform of output; (b) the phase portraits; (c) the RF spectra. The gray line is the noise floor of RF spectrum; (d) the optical spectra of the chaotic AFL. The red color labels the chaotic AFL while the blue color labels single mode AFL [62]@Copyright 2013 OSA.

  • Figure 28

    (Color online) (a) Measured free-running beating-frequency; (b) overlapped chaotic spectrums generated by the beating frequencies of 30 GHz (blue line), 34.6 GHz (orange line) and 38.9 GHz (green line); (c) calculated standard bandwidth, effective bandwidths and the flatness as a function of beating frequencies [63]@Copyright 2015 IEEE.

  • Figure 29

    (Color online) (a) Schematic diagram and (b) photograph of the few-mode transmitter. It consists of two directly modulated lasers and a mode converter/multiplexer. DML, directly modulated laser. MMI, multimode interference. $W_{\rm~eq}$ is the equivalent MMI width. $L_{\pi}$ is the beat length of the two lowest-order modes. $W_{1}$ and $W_{2}$ are the width of the Port4 and Port3, respectively [66]@Copyright 2018 OSA.

  • Figure 30

    (Color online) The waveguide modes, fiber modes and 10 Gbps eye diagrams of the fundamental and first-order mode generated from the few-mode transmitter [66]@Copyright 2018 OSA.

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