SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 3: 032113(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9738-2

Universally composable secure geographic area verification without pre-shared secret

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  • ReceivedAug 31, 2018
  • AcceptedJan 11, 2019
  • PublishedJan 29, 2019


The geographic area information of smart devices is required for realizing efficient area-based operations in 5G networks, Internet of Things, and so on. Because majority of smart devices are unmanned and are deployed in a hostile environment, secure geographic area verification is one of the important security issues for ensuring the accuracy of geographic area information of smart devices. In this study, we investigate the composition security of geographic area verification in a universally composable (UC) framework. First, we design the ideal functionality of geographic area verification; further, we propose a novel pre-shared secret-free secure geographic area verification protocol ${\rm~CAV}_{\delta}$. We also propose an improved protocol ${\rm~CAV}^T_{\delta}$ exhibiting a smaller false accept ratio than that exhibited by ${\rm~CAV}_{\delta}$. The proposed protocols can be used for verifying the geographic area information of smart devices without the requirement of any pre-shared secret during the initialization phase and additional key management when the protocols are running. Furthermore, the proposed protocols support the batch verification of multiple smart devices in one run, which is considered to be suitable for several location-critical smart devices. Subsequently, in the UC framework, we proved that our protocols achieve the necessary composition security and that our protocols exhibit an ability to resist colluding attacks.


This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61472310, U1536202, 61672413, 61672415, 61601107, U1708262) and China 111 Project (Grant No. B16037).


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  • Figure 2

    Protocol CAV.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) FAR under different $O$ in protocol ${\rm~CAV}_{\delta=1}$.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) FAR and FRR under different $\delta$.

  • Table 1   Notations
    Notation Description
    $V_i$ The $i$th verifier located at $v_i$
    $P_j$ The $j$th prover located at $p_j$
    $A_k$ The $k$th adversary located at $a_k$
    Area$(O,R)$ The circular area with center $O$ and radius $R$
    $X_i$ The $i$th BRM message
    $n_i$ The $i$th random number
    $C$ The traveling speed of messages
    $d(p,q)$ The distance between position $p$ and position $q$
    $F(\cdot)$ A secure BSM pseudorandom generator
    $g(\cdot)$ A secure MAC function
  • Table 2   Comparison with related studies
    ProtocolRB DB SP SPreg Ours
    Area verification $\checkmark$$\times$$\times$$\times$$\checkmark$
    Batch verification $\checkmark$$\checkmark$$\times$$\times$$\checkmark$
    Resist colluding attacks $\times$$\checkmark$$\checkmark$$\checkmark$$\checkmark$
    Without pre-shared key $\checkmark$$\times$$\checkmark$$\times$$\checkmark$
    Composition security $-$$-$$-$$\checkmark$$\checkmark$
  • Table 3   Communication and computation overhead
    Verifier Prover VerifierProverVerifierProver
    Communication overhead $|X|+|n|$ $|n|$ $|X|+2|n|$ $2|n|$ $2|X|+|n|$ $|n|$
    Computation overhead $3F$ $3F$ $3F+g$$6F+3g$$6F+g$$6F+g$

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