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SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 63, Issue 1: 112105(2020) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9789-y

Polynomial AND homomorphic cryptosystem and applications

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  • ReceivedAug 17, 2018
  • AcceptedFeb 14, 2019
  • PublishedDec 25, 2019

Abstract

Homomorphic cryptosystems are fundamental and highly effective cryptographic primitives for addressing security problems arising in information processing, data analysis and data applications, particularly in secure cloud computing and secure multiparty computation. To privately compute functions such as $E(x_1\wedge~\cdots\wedge~x_t)$, $E(x_1\vee~\cdots\vee~x_t)$ and $E[(x_{11}\wedge\cdots~\wedge~x_{m1})\vee~\cdots~\vee(x_{1n}\wedge~\cdots~\wedge~x_{mn})]$ ($m$ disjunctive normal form ($m$DNF)) on $E(x_1),\ldots,~E(x_t)$ and $E(x_{11}),\ldots,~E(x_{mn})$ without knowing the decryption key, Boolean homomorphic cryptosystems are necessary. Exploring new homomorphic cryptosystems to solve these problems is appealing, and is of high theoretical and practical significance. To solve problems such as these, we propose a polynomial AND homomorphic cryptosystem based on the ideal theory of abstract algebra; the scheme can be obtained from available multiplicatively homomorphic cryptosystems such as the ElGamal. We prove that the cryptosystem is semantically secure. This polynomial AND homomorphic cryptosystem is a highly effective tool for designing various cryptographic protocols. As examples, we demonstrate its applications to privately compute any DNF (i.e., $P(X_1,\ldots,~X_m)~=E[(x_{11}\wedge\cdots~\wedge~x_{m1})\vee~\cdots~\vee(x_{1n}\wedge~\cdots~\wedge~x_{mn})]$ on ciphertexts $E(x_{ij})$ of $x_{ij}$ without knowing the decryption key) and the intersection and union of certain private sets.


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) The execution time increases almost linearly as the bits to be encrypted increase and does not significantly increase as the length of the module increases.

  • Table 1   Multiplication table for $Z_8$
    $\cdot$ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    00 00 00 00 0
    1 01 2 3 4 5 6 7
    2 02 4 6 0 2 4 6
    3 03 6 1 4 7 2 5
    4 04 0 4 0 4 0 4
    5 05 2 7 4 1 6 3
    6 06 4 2 0 6 4 2
    7 07 6 5 4 3 2 1
  • Table 2   Ciphertext expansion and noise comparison
    Cryptosystem G-M O-U Paillier FHE-derived $^{\rm~a)}$ Ours
    Ciphertext expansion$2k$ $3k$$4k$16000$2k$

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