logo

SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 8: 080302(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9837-9

Analysis of irregular repetition spatially-coupled slotted ALOHA

More info
  • ReceivedNov 5, 2018
  • AcceptedMar 13, 2019
  • PublishedJul 11, 2019

Abstract

Contention-based access is a promising technology for massive and sporadic transmissions. In this paper, we propose a novel contention-based multiple access scheme, named irregular repetition spatially-coupled slotted ALOHA (IRSC-SA), motivated by the spatial coupling and irregular repetition techniques. There are different classes of users and slots in IRSC-SA, which result in unequal protection for different users. Considering that, we derive a novel density evolution (DE) method, which deals with unequal packet protection and introduces Bayesian reasoning to analyze the throughput threshold of the proposed IRSC-SA.Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better asymptotic threshold and system packet throughput performance than the conventional spatially-coupled slotted ALOHA.


Acknowledgment

This work was partially supported by Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. L182038), Chinese Ministry of Education-China Mobile Communication Corporation Research Fund (Grant No. MCM20170101), China National ST Major Project (Grant No. 2017ZX03001017), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61871032), Beijing Major Science and Technology Projects (Grant No. D171100006317001), Ericsson company, and 111 Project of China (Grant No. B14010).


References

[1] Bockelmann C, Pratas N, Nikopour H. Massive machine-type communications in 5g: physical and MAC-layer solutions. IEEE Commun Mag, 2016, 54: 59-65 CrossRef Google Scholar

[2] Study on Scenarios and Requirements for Next Generation Access Technologies. TR 38.913. Google Scholar

[3] Wu J, Fan P. A Survey on High Mobility Wireless Communications: Challenges, Opportunities and Solutions. IEEE Access, 2016, 4: 450-476 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Saito Y, Kishiyama Y, Benjebbour A, et al. Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) for cellular future radio access. In: Proceedings of IEEE 77th Vehicular Technology Conference, Dresden, 2013. 1--5. Google Scholar

[5] Yuan Y, Yuan Z, Yu G. Non-orthogonal transmission technology in LTE evolution. IEEE Commun Mag, 2016, 54: 68-74 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Taherzadeh M, Nikopour H, Bayesteh A, et al. SCMA codebook design. In: Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2014. 1--5. Google Scholar

[7] Au K, Zhang L, Nikopour H, et al. Uplink contention based SCMA for 5G radio access. In: Proceedings of IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2014. 900--905. Google Scholar

[8] 3GPP. Study on Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) for NR. TR 38.812. Google Scholar

[9] Zhang Z, Wang X, Zhang Y. Grant-Free Rateless Multiple Access: A Novel Massive Access Scheme for Internet of Things. IEEE Commun Lett, 2016, 20: 2019-2022 CrossRef Google Scholar

[10] Shirvanimoghaddam M, Li Y H, Vucetic B. Multiple access analog fountain codes. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Honolulu, 2014. 2167--2171. Google Scholar

[11] Choudhury G, Rappaport S. Diversity ALOHA--A Random Access Scheme for Satellite Communications. IEEE Trans Commun, 1983, 31: 450-457 CrossRef Google Scholar

[12] Casini E, De Gaudenzi R, Herrero O R. Contention Resolution Diversity Slotted ALOHA (CRDSA): An Enhanced Random Access Schemefor Satellite Access Packet Networks. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun, 2007, 6: 1408-1419 CrossRef Google Scholar

[13] Liva G. Graph-Based Analysis and Optimization of Contention Resolution Diversity Slotted ALOHA. IEEE Trans Commun, 2011, 59: 477-487 CrossRef Google Scholar

[14] Sun Z, Xie Y, Yuan J, et al. Coded slotted ALOHA schemes for erasure channels. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Kuala Lumpur, 2016. 1--6. Google Scholar

[15] Paolini E, Stefanovic C, Liva G. Coded random access: applying codes on graphs to design random access protocols. IEEE Commun Mag, 2015, 53: 144-150 CrossRef Google Scholar

[16] Jia D, Fei Z S, Xiao M. Enhanced frameless slotted ALOHA protocol with Markov chains analysis. Sci China Inf Sci, 2018, 61: 102304 CrossRef Google Scholar

[17] Cao C Z, Fei Z S, Xiao M, et al. An extended packetization-aware mapping algorithm for scalable video coding in finite-length fountain codes. Sci China Inf Sci, 2013, 56: 042311. Google Scholar

[18] Huang J X, Fei Z S, Cao C Z. On-Line Fountain Codes With Unequal Error Protection. IEEE Commun Lett, 2017, 21: 1225-1228 CrossRef Google Scholar

[19] Huang J X, Fei Z S, Cao C Z. Performance Analysis and Improvement of Online Fountain Codes. IEEE Trans Commun, 2018, 66: 5916-5926 CrossRef Google Scholar

[20] Toni L, Frossard P. Prioritized Random MAC Optimization Via Graph-Based Analysis. IEEE Trans Commun, 2015, 63: 5002-5013 CrossRef Google Scholar

[21] Stefanovic V, Popovski P. Coded slotted ALOHA with varying packet loss rate across users. In: Proceedings of IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing, Austin, 2013. 787--790. Google Scholar

[22] Ivanov M, Brannstrom F, Graell i Amat A. Unequal Error Protection in Coded Slotted ALOHA. IEEE Wireless Commun Lett, 2016, 5: 536-539 CrossRef Google Scholar

[23] Sandgren E, Graell i Amat A, Brannstrom F. On Frame Asynchronous Coded Slotted ALOHA: Asymptotic, Finite Length, and Delay Analysis. IEEE Trans Commun, 2017, 65: 691-704 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] Cao C Z, Koike-Akino T, Wang Y, et al. Irregular polar coding for massive MIMO. In: Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference, Singapore, 2017. Google Scholar

[25] Koike-Akino T, Cao C, Wang Y. Irregular Polar Coding for Complexity-Constrained Lightwave Systems. J Lightwave Technol, 2018, 36: 2248-2258 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[26] Koike-Akino T, Cao C Z, Wang Y. Turbo product codes with irregular polar coding for high-throughput parallel decoding in wireless OFDM transmission. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2018. 1--7. Google Scholar

[27] Kudekar S, Richardson T J, Urbanke R L. Threshold Saturation via Spatial Coupling: Why Convolutional LDPC Ensembles Perform So Well over the BEC. IEEE Trans Inform Theor, 2011, 57: 803-834 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Engdahl K, Lentmaier M, Zigangirov K S. On the theory of low-density convolutional codes. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Applied Algebra, Algebraic Algorithms, and Error-Correcting Codes, 1999. 77--86. Google Scholar

[29] Liva G, Paolini E, Lentmaier M, et al. Spatially-coupled random access on graphs. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings (ISIT), Cambridge, 2012. 478--482. Google Scholar

[30] Richardson T J, Shokrollahi M A, Urbanke R L. Design of capacity-approaching irregular low-density parity-check codes. IEEE Trans Inform Theor, 2001, 47: 619-637 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Narayanan K R, Pfister H D. Iterative collision resolution for slotted ALOHA: An optimal uncoordinated transmission policy. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Turbo Codes and Iterative Information Processing (ISTC). Gothenburg, 2012. 136--139. Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    (Color online) An illustration of the Tanner graph of CSA and SIC.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Tanner graph of IRSC-SA with $L=3$, $d=2$, $N=3$, $\epsilon~M=2$, and $\Lambda(x)=\frac{5}{6}x+\frac{1}{6}x^2$. The normalized average offered traffic $G=\frac{\varepsilon~M~L}{M_f~N}=\frac{1}{2}$.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) The graph connections of a type-$j$ SN indicate the message passing. (a) The erasure probability from a type-$j$ SN towards different types of BNs; (b) the erasure probability from a BN towards a type-$j$ SN.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Comparisons between the $p_{j\rightarrow~j,t}$ derived by the proposed DE and the conventional DE. (a) $d=2$, $q_{j-1\rightarrow~j,t}=0.2$, $q_{j\rightarrow~j,t}=0.5$; (b) $d=3$, $q_{j-2\rightarrow~j,t}=0.2$, $q_{j-1\rightarrow~j,t}=0.5$, $q_{j\rightarrow~j,t}=0.6$.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) The comparison of the packet recovery probabilities of different BN types during SIC iterations.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Throughputs of CRDSA with $N=400$, SC-SA with $N=400$, and IRSC-SA with $\Lambda(x)=0.9x+0.1x^2$ and $N=400$, $L=40$. (a) $d=2$; (b) $d=3$.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) Capacities of IRSC-SA and SC-SA with same transmission power per user.

  • Table 1   Thresholds of different access schemes
    $G^*$ $d=2$ $d=3$ $d=4$
    IRSC-SA 0.6138 0.9367 0.9688
    SC-SA 0.5 0.9078 0.9585
    CRDSA 0.5 0.8184 0.7722

Copyright 2020 Science China Press Co., Ltd. 《中国科学》杂志社有限责任公司 版权所有

京ICP备18024590号-1