SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 12: 222203(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9864-8

Dynamical model of HEV with two planetary gear units and its application to optimization of energy consumption

More info
  • ReceivedDec 10, 2018
  • AcceptedMar 4, 2019
  • PublishedNov 12, 2019


A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) that uses multiple planetary gear units with clutches as transmission system is advanced for the powertrain performance, because the operation of the clutches can lead to distinct operating modes, and the induced possible operating modes provide additional freedom to deal with the energy optimal control problem. Under each operating mode, the powertrain mechanical system has specific dynamical behavior. In order to develop model-based optimization schemes that can tackle the transient operations of the vehicle, exact dynamical modeling is investigated focusing on a hybrid powertrain system that uses a two-planetary-gear transmission box with two clutches. It shows that according to the states of the two clutches, the powertrain system has the power-split mode, parallel mode and the electric vehicle (EV) mode. Finally, an analysis for the calculation of the desired driving torque and its application to the dynamic programming (DP)-based energy management indicate the significance of the developed exact dynamical models.


[1] Ehsani M, Gao Y, Gay S, et al. Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles, Fundamentals, Theory, and Design. 2nd ed. CRC Press LLC, 2010. Google Scholar

[2] Zhang X W, Eben Li S B, Peng H. Efficient Exhaustive Search of Power-Split Hybrid Powertrains With Multiple Planetary Gears and Clutches. J Dyn Sys Meas Control, 2015, 137: 121006 CrossRef Google Scholar

[3] Zhang X W, Peng H, Sun J. A Near-Optimal Power Management Strategy for Rapid Component Sizing of Multimode Power Split Hybrid Vehicles. IEEE Trans Contr Syst Technol, 2015, 23: 609-618 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Wang R, Lukic S M. Dynamic programming technique in hybrid electric vehicle optimization. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Electric Vehicle Conference, 2012. 1--8. Google Scholar

[5] Kim N, Cha S, Peng H. Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle. IEEE Trans Contr Syst Technol, 2011, 19: 1279-1287 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Chen Z, Mi C, Xu J. Energy Management for a Power-Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Dynamic Programming and Neural Networks. IEEE Trans Veh Technol, 2014, 63: 1567-1580 CrossRef Google Scholar

[7] Tang L, Rizzoni G, Lukas M. Comparison of dynamic programming-based energy management strategies including battery life optimization. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway, Ship Propulsion and Road Vehicles, 2016. Google Scholar

[8] Guo L L, Chen H, Gao B Z. Energy management of HEVs based on velocity profile optimization. Sci China Inf Sci, 2019, 62: 089203 CrossRef Google Scholar

[9] Borhan H, Vahidi A, Phillips A M. MPC-Based Energy Management of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle. IEEE Trans Contr Syst Technol, 2012, 20: 593-603 CrossRef Google Scholar

[10] Zhang J, Shen T. Real-Time Fuel Economy Optimization With Nonlinear MPC for PHEVs. IEEE Trans Contr Syst Technol, 2016, 24: 2167-2175 CrossRef Google Scholar

[11] Guo L, Gao B, Li Y. A fast algorithm for nonlinear model predictive control applied to HEV energy management systems. Sci China Inf Sci, 2017, 60: 092201 CrossRef Google Scholar

[12] Moura S J, Fathy H K, Callaway D S. A Stochastic Optimal Control Approach for Power Management in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles. IEEE Trans Contr Syst Technol, 2011, 19: 545-555 CrossRef Google Scholar

[13] Di Cairano S, Bernardini D, Bemporad A. Stochastic MPC With Learning for Driver-Predictive Vehicle Control and its Application to HEV Energy Management. IEEE Trans Contr Syst Technol, 2014, 22: 1018-1031 CrossRef Google Scholar

[14] Zhang J, Wu Y. A stochastic logical model-based approximate solution for energy management problem of HEVs. Sci China Inf Sci, 2018, 61: 070207 CrossRef Google Scholar

[15] Zhuang W, Zhang X, Li D. Mode shift map design and integrated energy management control of a multi-mode hybrid electric vehicle. Appl Energy, 2017, 204: 476-488 CrossRef Google Scholar

Copyright 2020 Science China Press Co., Ltd. 《中国科学》杂志社有限责任公司 版权所有

京ICP备18024590号-1       京公网安备11010102003388号