logo

SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 62 , Issue 12 : 220405(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-019-1472-6

A study on ionic gated MoS$_2$ phototransistors

More info
  • ReceivedJun 2, 2019
  • AcceptedJul 24, 2019
  • PublishedOct 31, 2019

Abstract

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS$_2$) holds great promise in the future applications of nanoelectronics and optoelectronic devices. Exploring those interesting physical properties of MoS$_2$ using a strong electric field provided by electrolyte-gel is a robust approach. Here, we fabricate an MoS$_2$ phototransistor gated by electrolyte-gel which is located on a fused silica substrate. Under the modulation of electrolyte-gel, the Schottky barrier between MoS$_2$ and source/drain electrodes can be widely regulated from 11 to 179 meV. The MoS$_2$ phototransistor exhibits excellent responsivity of $2.68~\times~10^4$ A/W and detectivity of $9.6~\times~10^{10}$ Jones under visible incident light at negative gate voltage modulation. We attribute the optoelectronic performance enhancement to the Schottky barrier modulation of electrolyte-gel gating. It makes the device suitable for applications in high-sensitive photodetectors.


Acknowledgment

This work was partially supported by Major State Basic Research Development Program (Grant Nos. 2016YFB0400801), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61722408, 61835012, 51802041), Key Research Project of Frontier Sciences of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. QYZDY-SSW-JSC042, QYZDB-SSW-JSC016), National Postdoctoral Program for Innovative Talents (Grant No. BX20180329), and Shanghai Sailing Program (Grant No. 19YF1454900).


Supplement

Figures S1–S6.


References

[1] Wang X D, Liu C S, Chen Y. Ferroelectric FET for nonvolatile memory application with two-dimensional MoSe$_{2}$ channels. 2D Mater, 2017, 4: 025036 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[2] Chen Y, Wang X D, Wang P. Optoelectronic properties of few-layer MoS2 FET gated by ferroelectric relaxorpolymer. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016, 8: 32083-32088 CrossRef Google Scholar

[3] Lan C Y, Zhou Z Y, Wei R J. Two-dimensional perovskite materials: From synthesis to energy-related applications. Mater Today Energy, 2019, 11: 61-82 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Alarawi A, Ramalingam V, He J H. Recent advances in emerging single atom confined two-dimensional materials for water splitting applications. Mater Today Energy, 2019, 11: 1-23 CrossRef Google Scholar

[5] Ai Y, Hsu T H, Wu D C. An ultrasensitive flexible pressure sensor for multimodal wearable electronic skins based on large-scale polystyrene ball@reduced graphene-oxide core-shell nanoparticles. J Mater Chem C, 2018, 6: 5514-5520 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Medina H, Li J G, Su T Y. Wafer-scale growth of WSe2 monolayers toward phase-engineered hybrid WOx/WSe2films with sub-ppb NOx gas sensing by a low-temperature plasma-assisted selenization process. Chem Mater, 2017, 29: 1587-1598 CrossRef Google Scholar

[7] Novoselov K S, McCann E, Morozov S V. Unconventional quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase of 2π in bilayer graphene. Nat Phys, 2006, 2: 177-180 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[8] Schedin F, Geim A K, Morozov S V. Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene. Nat Mater, 2007, 6: 652-655 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[9] Mak K F, Lee C, Hone J. Atomically Thin MoS$_{2}$: A New Direct-Gap Semiconductor. Phys Rev Lett, 2010, 105: 136805 CrossRef PubMed ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[10] Naber R C G, Tanase C, Blom P W M. High-performance solution-processed polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistors. Nat Mater, 2005, 4: 243-248 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[11] Chang Y H, Zhang W J, Zhu Y H. Monolayer MoSe2 grown by chemical vapor deposition for fast photodetection.. ACS Nano, 2014, 8: 8582-8590 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[12] Tian B B, Liu L, Yan M G. A Robust Artificial Synapse Based on Organic Ferroelectric Polymer. Adv Electron Mater, 2019, 5: 1800600 CrossRef Google Scholar

[13] Wang J L, Hu W D. Recent progress on integrating two-dimensional materials with ferroelectrics for memory devices and photodetectors. Chin Phys B, 2017, 26: 037106 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[14] Wang X D, Chen Y, Wu G J. Two-dimensional negative capacitance transistor with polyvinylidene fluoride-based ferroelectric polymer gating. npj 2D Mater Appl, 2017, 1: 38 CrossRef Google Scholar

[15] Lopez-Sanchez O, Lembke D, Kayci M. Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS$_{2}$. Nat Nanotech, 2013, 8: 497-501 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[16] Wang X D, Wang P, Wang J L. Ultrasensitive and Broadband MoS? Photodetector Driven by Ferroelectrics.. Adv Mater, 2015, 27: 6575-6581 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[17] Gao G Y, Wan B S, Liu X Q. Tunable tribotronic dual-gate logic devices based on 2D MoS2 and black phosphorus. Adv Mater, 2018, 30: 1705088 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[18] Park M, Park Y J, Chen X. MoS2 -Based Tactile Sensor for Electronic Skin Applications.. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 2556-2562 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[19] Kim J S, Yoo H W, Choi H O. Tunable Volatile Organic Compounds Sensor by Using Thiolated Ligand Conjugation on MoS2. Nano Lett, 2014, 14: 5941-5947 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[20] Perkins F K, Friedman A L, Cobas E. Chemical Vapor Sensing with Monolayer MoS2. Nano Lett, 2013, 13: 668-673 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[21] Jin K, Xie L M, Tian Y. Au-modified monolayer MoS2 sensor for DNA detection. J Phys Chem C, 2016, 120: 11204-11209 CrossRef Google Scholar

[22] Gao N, Fang X S. Synthesis and Development of Graphene-Inorganic Semiconductor Nanocomposites.. Chem Rev, 2015, 115: 8294-8343 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[23] Liu S X, Zheng L X, Yu P P. Novel composites of α-Fe2O3 tetrakaidecahedron and graphene oxide as an effectivephotoelectrode with enhanced photocurrent performances. Adv Funct Mater, 2016, 26: 3331-3339 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] Ouyang W X, Teng F, Fang X S. High performance BiOCl nanosheets/TiO2 nanotube arrays heterojunction UVphotodetector: the influences of self-induced inner electric fields in the BiOCl nanosheets. Adv Funct Mater, 2018, 28: 1707178 CrossRef Google Scholar

[25] Tang S Y, Medina H, Yen Y T. Enhanced photocarrier generation with selectable wavelengths by M-decorated-CuInS2 nanocrystals (M=Au and Pt) synthesized in a single surfactant process on MoS2 Bilayers. Small, 2019, 15: 1803529 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[26] Yang W, Chen J X, Zhang Y. Silicon?Compatible Photodetectors: Trends to Monolithically Integrate Photosensors with Chip Technology. Adv Funct Mater, 2019, 29: 1808182 CrossRef Google Scholar

[27] Kc S, Longo R C, Wallace R M. Effect of Al2O2 deposition on performance of top-gated monolayer MoS2-basedfield effect transistor. ACS Omega, 2017, 2: 2827-2834 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Song J G, Kim S J, Woo W J. A ferroelectric relaxor polymer-enhanced p-type WSe2 transistor. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016, 8: 28130-28135 CrossRef Google Scholar

[29] Yin C, Wang X D, Chen Y. Nanoscale, 2018, 10: 1727-1734 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[30] Tu L Q, Wang X D, Wang J L. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Field Effect Transistor. Adv Electron Mater, 2018, 4: 1800231 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Wang J L, Fang H H, Wang X D. Recent Progress on Localized Field Enhanced Two-dimensional Material Photodetectors from Ultraviolet-Visible to Infrared.. Small, 2017, 13: 1700894 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[32] Xue S, Zhao X L, Wang J L. Preparation of La$_{0.67}$Ca$_{0.23}$Sr$_{0.1}$MnO$_{3}$ thin films with interesting electrical and magnetic properties via pulsed-laser deposition. Sci China-Phys Mech Astron, 2017, 60: 027521 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[33] Liu Y, Guo J, Zhu E B. Approaching the Schottky-Mott limit in van der Waals metal-semiconductor junctions. Nature, 2018, 557: 696-700 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[34] Guo R, You L, Zhou Y. Non-volatile memory based on the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect. Nat Commun, 2013, 4: 1990 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[35] Wang J, Yao Q, Huang C W. High mobility MoS2 transistor with low schottky barrier contact by using atomic thick h-BN as a tunneling layer. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 8302-8308 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[36] Kappera R, Voiry D, Yalcin S E. Phase-engineered low-resistance contacts for ultrathin MoS$_{2}$ transistors. Nat Mater, 2014, 13: 1128-1134 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[37] Osinsky A, Gangopadhyay S, Lim B W. Schottky barrier photodetectors based on AlGaN. Appl Phys Lett, 1998, 72: 742-744 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[38] Yang Y B, Huang L, Xiao Y. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018, 10: 2745-2751 CrossRef Google Scholar

[39] Zhang Y J, Ye J T, Matsuhashi Y. Ambipolar MoS2Thin Flake Transistors. Nano Lett, 2012, 12: 1136-1140 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[40] Li H, Zhang Q, Yap C C R. From Bulk to Monolayer MoS2: Evolution of Raman Scattering. Adv Funct Mater, 2012, 22: 1385-1390 CrossRef Google Scholar

[41] Das S R, Kwon J, Prakash A. Low-frequency noise in MoSe$_{2}$ field effect transistors. Appl Phys Lett, 2015, 106: 083507 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[42] Chen Y, Wang X D, Wu G J. Small, 2018, 14: 1703293 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Device structure and characteristics of MoS$_2$. (a) A three-dimensional structure diagram of the MoS$_2$ phototransistor with electrolyte-gel gating. (b) Micrograph of an MoS$_2$ transistor with a side gate prepared on the fused silica substrate. The area circled by the red ellipse will be covered by electrolyte-gel. (c) The height of MoS$_2$ used as the channel is approximately 22 nm, the inset is the AFM morphology of the device. (d) Raman spectrum of MoS$_2$ on the fused silica substrate with two vibration modes $E_{2g}^1$ and $A_{1g}$ (the laser excitation wavelength is 532 nm).

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Electrical characteristics and working principle of the device. (a) A working circuit schematic of the MoS$_2$ phototransistor with electrolyte-gel gating; (b) the transfer curves of the device at 100 mV drain bias; protectłinebreak (c) the output characteristics of the device with gate voltage varies from $-$3 V to 3 V; (d)–(f) schematics of device working principle at positive, zero and negative gate voltage. When $V_g~\ne~0~$ V, an electric-double layer is formed at the surface of the side gate electrode and the MoS$_2$ channel.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Schottky barrier modulation of electrolyte-gel gating. (a) The photocurrent mapping of the MoS$_2$ phototransistor covered with electrolyte-gel and the $V_g~=~0$ V, $V_d~=~0$ V. Significant photocurrent generation can be found at the contact between MoS$_2$ channel and source/drain electrode. Red and blue color represent positive and negative photocurrent, respectively. (b) A section cut perpendicular to the plane along two extreme points in (a). It is apparent that a photocurrent is generated at the position of Schottky barrier. (c) Schottky barrier height and standard deviation of the device at different gate voltages. (d) The band structure of MoS$_2$ at $V_g~=~3$ V, $V_g~=~0$ V, $V_g~=~-3$ V. The drain bias is 0 V in all cases. $\phi_{B1}$, $E_{f1}$, $\phi_{B2}$, $E_{f2}$, $\phi_{B3}$, $E_{f3}$ correspond to Schottky barrier height and Fermi level at $V_g~=~3$ V, $V_g~=~0$ V, $V_g~=~-3$ V, respectively. $E_c$, $E_v$, $E_i$, and $E_g$ represent the conduction band, valence band, intrinsic Fermi level and band gap of MoS$_2$, respectively.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Optoelectronic performance of the MoS$_2$ phototransistor gated by electrolyte-gel. (a) $I_d$-$V_d$ characteristics of the device with $V_g~=~-3$ V under dark and different laser powers (the laser wavelength is 520 nm and the power varies from 0.09 nW to 27.1 ${\mu}$W); (b) the photocurrent dependence on the incident laser power; (c) the responsivity and detectivity of the device at different incident light powers; (d) the photocurrent rise and fall time of the device at $V_g~=~-3$ V and $V_d =~100$ mV.

Copyright 2020 Science China Press Co., Ltd. 《中国科学》杂志社有限责任公司 版权所有

京ICP备17057255号       京公网安备11010102003388号