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SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 12: 220406(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-019-2677-9

Nonlinear photoresponse of metallic graphene-like VSe$_2$ ultrathin nanosheets for pulse laser generation

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  • ReceivedAug 26, 2019
  • AcceptedOct 14, 2019
  • PublishedNov 12, 2019

Abstract

Vanadium diselenide (VSe$_2$), a typical metallic behaviour material among transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) family, exhibits excellent photoelectric characteristics with a zero band gap, missing applicaiotn in pulse generation. In this work, a high-quality VSe$_2$ saturable absorber (SA) was synthesized through a liquid-phase exfoliation method. The saturable absorption of obtained VSe$_2$-SA wascharacterized systematically. The measured modulation depth was 9.9%, and the saturated intensity was 533.8 $\mu$J/cm$^2$. By incorporating this optical modulator into a ytterbium-doped fiber laser cavity, a stable passively Q-switched laser could be achieved. The pulse had the central wavelength of 1064.03 nm. As the pump power was increased, the repetition rate increased from 24.3 kHz to 35.6 kHz, and the pulse duration decreased from 7.21 $\mu$s to 5.27 $\mu$s. The output power had the maximum value of 28.55 mW.These results indicated that VSe$_2$ is an effective candidate to generate pulse laser due to its excellent nonlinear optical properties and universal photoelectric response, which may advance the applications of VSe$_2$-based nonlinear optics and photoelectric devices.


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant No. 61875223), Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province (Grant No. 2018JJ3610), Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. QYZDB-SSW-SLH031).


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Crystal structure and characterizations of as-synthesized VSe$_2$ nanoflakes after liquid-phase exfoliation. (a) The schematic diagram of crystal structure of layered VSe$_2$; (b) the XRD pattern of VSe$_2$ crystals; (c) the Raman spectrum of a few-layer VSe$_2$ nanoflake on a Si substrate; (d) the TEM micrograph of VSe$_2$ nanoflakes; (e), (f) the high resolution TEM image of the VSe$_2$ nanoflake and its corresponding SAED pattern.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) (a) A typical SEM image of a VSe$_2$ crystal with ahexagonal shape; (b)–(d) the corresponding EDX mappings and EDX spectrum with anatomic ratio of V and Se elements showed in (a); (e) an AFM image of few-layer VSe$_2$ nanoflakes on a Si substrate with 285 nm SiO$_2$; (f) the corresponding optical photograph ($\times$100) and a height graph of thickness around 30 nm.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) (a) the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum of VSe$_2$ nanosheets; (b) nonlinear SA curve of the VSe$_2$-SA at different light intensity.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Experimental setup for the VSe$_2$-based passively Q-switched fiber laser.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Output pulse properties. (a) Output power; (b) the variation of repetition rate and pulse duration with different pump power; (c) pulse energy as a function of pump power; (d) peak power versus pump power.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) The properties of Q-switched pulse at the pump power of 263.1 mW. (a) Output spectrum;protect łinebreak (b) pulse train; (c) zoomed-in view of a single pulse; (d) different ranges of RF spectra.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) Q-switched pulse stability every 5 min for a total of 40 min. (a) Output spectrums; (b) bandwidth; (c) output power.

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