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SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 63 , Issue 4 : 140903(2020) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-019-2768-1

Mineralogy of Chang'e-4 landing site: preliminary results of visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer

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  • ReceivedJun 11, 2019
  • AcceptedDec 20, 2019
  • PublishedMar 9, 2020

Abstract

The exploration of mafic anomaly in South Pole-Aitken (SPA, the largest confirmed) basin on the Moon provides important insights into lunar interior. The landing of Chang'e-4 (CE-4) and deployment of Yutu-2 rover on the discontinuous ejecta from Finsen crater enabled in-situmeasurements of the unusual mineralogy in the central portion of SPA basin with visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer (VNIS). Here we present detailed processing procedures based on the level 2B data of CE-4 VNIS and preliminary mineralogical results at the exploration area of Yutu-2 rover. A systematic processing pipeline is developed to derive credible reflectance spectra, based on which several spectral and mineral indices are calculated to constrain the mafic mineralogy. The mafic components in the soils and boulder around CE-4 landing site are concluded as clinopyroxene-bearing with intermediate composition and probably dominated by pigeonite although the possibility of mixing orthopyroxen (OPX) and calcic clinopyroxene (CPX) also exists. These mineralogical results are more consistent with a petrogenesis that the CE-4 regolith and rock fragment are derived from rapid-cooling magmatic systems and we interpret that the materials at the CE-4 landing site ejected from Finsen crater are probably recrystallized from impact melt settings.


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11941001, 41972322, U1931211), Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (Grant No. ZR2019MD008), Qilu Young Scholar (TANG SCHOLAR) Program of Shandong University, Weihai (Grant No. 2015WHWLJH14), Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. QYZDY-SSW-DQC028), and Pre-research Project on Civil Aerospace Technologies Funded by China National Space Administration (CNSA) (Grant No. D020102).


Supplement

Appendixes A–E.


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Global to ground view of the CE-4 landing site, exploration region of Yutu-2 rover, and the VNIS detections. (a) CE-1 digital orthophoto map (DOM) of lunar farside. The yellow indicator shows the extent of frame (b). (b) Nomenclature surrounding CE-4 landing site on CE-2 digital elevation model (DEM) and DOM. (c) Traverse path of Yutu-2 rover and location of exploration sites during the first three lunar days on image taken by the CE-4 landing camera (LCAM), each exploration site is marked by yellow circles and its number which corresponds that in panel (f). (d) Image of Yutu-2 rover at exploration site 0009 acquired by the CE-4 terrane camera (TCAM). (e) Boulders viewed by the CE-4 panoramic camera (PCAM) at the exploration site 0011. (f) 900-nm-band images of 14 VNIS detections. The white circles show the field of view of short-wave infrared (SWIR) detectors.

  • Figure 2

    Processing procedures based on CE-4 VNIS level 2B radiance data.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) VNIS spectra and mineral compositions of Yutu-2 detection sites. (a) Combined VNIS spectra (450–2395 nm) from 14 sites. (b) VNIS spectra after continuum removal. (c) Band center positions of the CE-4 VNIS detection targets overlain on band centers of pyroxene from [8,42]. (d) BC1-IBDR plot for the fourteen CE-4 VNIS detections. The polygon and elliptic fields represent mineral combinations [34,43,44]. The data points with error bars in (c) and (d) represent the average and standard deviations of VNIS spectral parameters. (e) HCP_INDEX vs. LCP_INDEX plot for laboratory spectra [39]of clinopyroxene (black squares), orthopyroxene (purple triangles), olivine (blue triangles), and glass (red circles) and VNIS spectra. (f) HCP_INDEX vs. OL_INDEX plot for the same datasets in (e). Mg-PX: Mg-rich pyroxene; Ol: olivine.

  • Table 1   Definitions of spectral indices used in $^{\rm~a)}$
    Spectral indexDefinition
    IBD1000${{\mathop~\sum~}_{n=0}^{s2-s1}}\,1-\frac{R\left(~s1+n~\right)}{{{R}_{c}}\left(~s1+n~\right)}$
    IBD2000$2\times~{{\mathop~\sum~}_{n=0}^{bc2-s3}}\,1-\frac{R\left(~s3+n~\right)}{{{R}_{c}}\left(~s3+n~\right)}$
    IBDR$\frac{\rm~IBD2000}{\rm~IBD1000}$
    LCP_INDEX$100\times~\left[~\frac{R\left(~1330~\right)-R\left(~1080~\right)}{R\left(~1330~\right)+R\left(~1080~\right)}~\right]\times~\left[~\frac{R\left(~1330~\right)-R\left(~1815~\right)}{R\left(~1330~\right)+R\left(~1815~\right)}~\right]$
    HCP_INDEX$100\times~\left[~\frac{R\left(~1470~\right)-R\left(~1080~\right)}{R\left(~1470~\right)+R\left(~1080~\right)}~\right]\times~\left[~\frac{R\left(~1470~\right)-R\left(~2067~\right)}{R\left(~1470~\right)+R\left(~2067~\right)}~\right]$
    OL_INDEX$1-\left[~0.1\times~\frac{R\left(~1054~\right)}{{{R}_{C}}\left(~1054~\right)}+0.1\times~\frac{R\left(~1211~\right)}{{{R}_{C}}\left(~1211~\right)}~\right]+0.4\times~\frac{R\left(~1329~\right)}{{{R}_{C}}\left(~1329~\right)}+0.4\times~\frac{R\left(~1474~\right)}{{{R}_{C}}\left(~1474~\right)}$

    a

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