logo

SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 63 , Issue 7 : 170101(2020) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-019-2818-5

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in substance use disorder: recent advances and future clinical applications

More info
  • ReceivedNov 28, 2019
  • AcceptedFeb 27, 2020
  • PublishedMay 29, 2020

Abstract

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) now is widely used in clinical researches for the measurement of compounds or metabolites in vivo, especially in neuropsychiatric diseases/disorders. Recently, there are many studies on substance use disorders utilizing 1H-MRS to explore the mechanism of brain metabolites. It is found that metabolites levels in substance users are changed compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, these changes also relate to behavior indices, and provide evidence for the impact on neuronal health, energy metabolism and membrane turnover.However, 1H-MRS is not yet a mature detection technology, and it still has many challenges in the application of the neuropsychiatric disorder area. The settings of test parameters and the inconsistency of results across different studies still plague the clinicians and technicians. This article is intended to provide an overview of basic theory and methods of 1H-MRS, and the literature reporting metabolites alterations in substance dependence, as well as the related neuropsychological performance. At last, we will discuss the forthcoming challenges and possible future direction in this area.


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFC1310400), National Nature Science Foundation (Grant No. 81771436, 81801319), Shanghai Municipal Health and Family Planning Commission (Grant No. 2017ZZ02021), Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders (Grant No. 13DZ2260500), Program of Shanghai Academic Research Leader (Grant No. 17XD1403300), and Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Major Project (Grant No. 2018SHZDZX05), and Shanghai Clinical Research Center for Mental Health (Grant No. 19MC1911100).


References

[1] Bertholdo D, Watcharakorn A, Castillo M. Brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy: introduction and overview.. NeuroImag Clinics North Am, 2013, 23: 359-380 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[2] Karl A, Werner A. The use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in PTSD research--meta-analyses of findings and methodological review. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 2010, 34: 7-22. Google Scholar

[3] Lee R S C, Hoppenbrouwers S, Franken I. A Systematic Meta-Review of Impulsivity and Compulsivity in Addictive Behaviors.. Neuropsychol Rev, 2019, 29: 14-26 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[4] Zou Z, Wang H, d'Oleire Uquillas F, et al. Definition of Substance and Non-substance Addiction. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 2017, 1010: 21-41. Google Scholar

[5] Degenhardt L, Bharat C, Glantz M D. The epidemiology of drug use disorders cross-nationally: Findings from the WHO's World Mental Health Surveys.. Int J Drug Policy, 2019, 71: 103-112 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[6] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. World Drug Report 2018 By United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime New York: United Nations, 2018. Google Scholar

[7] Koob G F, Volkow N D. Neurobiology of addiction: a neurocircuitry analysis. Lancet Psychiatry, 2016, 3: 760-773 CrossRef Google Scholar

[8] Hellem T, Shi X, Latendresse G. The Utility of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Understanding Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review of the Literature.. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc, 2015, 21: 244-275 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[9] Ernst R R, Bodenhausen G, Wokaun A, et al. Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in One and Two Dimensions. 1987. Google Scholar

[10] Williams S. In vivo NMR spectroscopy: Principles and techniques, R.A. de Graaf, Wiley, Chichester, 1998, Hardback 120 ISBN 0-471-98365-9. 1999, 35: 201. Google Scholar

[11] Ende G. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Relevance of Glutamate and GABA to Neuropsychology.. Neuropsychol Rev, 2015, 25: 315-325 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[12] Bottomley P. 4480228 Selective volume method for performing localized NMR spectroscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 1985, 3: iv-v. Google Scholar

[13] Frahm J, Bruhn H, Gyngell M L. Localized high-resolution proton NMR spectroscopy using stimulated echoes: initial applications to human brain in vivo.. Magn Reson Med, 1989, 9: 79-93 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[14] Tamiya T, Kinoshita K, Ono Y, et al. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects cellular proliferative activity in astrocytomas. Neuroradiology, 42: 333-338. Google Scholar

[15] Hammen T, Stefan H, Eberhardt K E. Clinical applications of 1H-MR spectroscopy in the evaluation of epilepsies--what do pathological spectra stand for with regard to current results and what answers do they give to common clinical questions concerning the treatment of epilepsies?. Acta Neurol Scand, 2003, 108: 223-238 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[16] Szulc A, Gali??ska B, Tarasów E, et al. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in selected areas of the brain in patients with chronic schizophrenia treated with typical and atypical neuroleptics: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) study. Medical Science Monitor 2007, 13 Suppl 1: 17-22. Google Scholar

[17] Gruber S, Frey R, Mlynárik V, et al. Quantification of Metabolic Differences in the Frontal Brain of Depressive Patients and Controls Obtained by 1H-MRS at 3 Tesla. Investigative Radiology, 2003, 38: 403-408. Google Scholar

[18] Frischknecht U, Hermann D, Tunc-Skarka N. Negative Association Between MR-Spectroscopic Glutamate Markers and Gray Matter Volume After Alcohol Withdrawal in the Hippocampus: A Translational Study in Humans and Rats.. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 2017, 41: 323-333 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[19] Burger A, Brooks S J, Stein D J. The impact of acute and short-term methamphetamine abstinence on brain metabolites: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy chemical shift imaging study.. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 2018, 185: 226-237 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[20] Yeo R A, Thoma R J, Gasparovic C. Neurometabolite concentration and clinical features of chronic alcohol use: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.. Psychiatry Res-NeuroImag, 2013, 211: 141-147 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[21] Crocker C E, Purdon S E, Hanstock C C. Enduring changes in brain metabolites and executive functioning in abstinent cocaine users.. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 2017, 178: 435-442 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[22] Howells F M, Uhlmann A, Temmingh H. (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in methamphetamine dependence and methamphetamine induced psychosis.. Schizophrenia Res, 2014, 153: 122-128 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[23] Licata S C, Renshaw P F. Neurochemistry of drug action: insights from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and their relevance to addiction.. Ann New York Acad Sci, 2010, 1187: 148-171 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[24] Hermann D, Weber-Fahr W, Sartorius A. Translational magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals excessive central glutamate levels during alcohol withdrawal in humans and rats.. Biol Psychiatry, 2012, 71: 1015-1021 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[25] Yang S, Salmeron B J, Ross T J, et al. Lower glutamate levels in rostral anterior cingulate of chronic cocaine users - A 1H-MRS study using TE-averaged PRESS at 3T with an optimized quantification strategy. 2009, 174: 171-176. Google Scholar

[26] Prisciandaro J J, Tolliver B K, Prescot A P. Unique prefrontal GABA and glutamate disturbances in co-occurring bipolar disorder and alcohol dependence.. Transl Psychiatry, 2017, 7: e1163-e1163 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[27] Frischknecht U, Hermann D, Tunc-Skarka N. Negative Association Between MR-Spectroscopic Glutamate Markers and Gray Matter Volume After Alcohol Withdrawal in the Hippocampus: A Translational Study in Humans and Rats.. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 2017, 41: 323-333 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[28] Silveri M M, Cohen-Gilbert J, Crowley D J. Altered anterior cingulate neurochemistry in emerging adult binge drinkers with a history of alcohol-induced blackouts.. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 2014, 38: 969-979 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[29] Bagga D, Khushu S, Modi S. Impaired visual information processing in alcohol-dependent subjects: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the primary visual cortex.. J Stud Alcohol Drugs, 2014, 75: 817-826 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[30] Jiang L, Gulanski B I, De Feyter H M. Increased brain uptake and oxidation of acetate in heavy drinkers.. J Clin Invest, 2013, 123: 1605-1614 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[31] Ende G, Hermann D, Demirakca T, et al. Loss of control of alcohol use and severity of alcohol dependence in non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers are related to lower glutamate in frontal white matter. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 2013, 37: 1643-1649. Google Scholar

[32] Abé C, Mon A, Hoefer M E. Metabolic abnormalities in lobar and subcortical brain regions of abstinent polysubstance users: magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.. Alcohol Alcoholism, 2013, 48: 543-551 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[33] Abé C, Mon A, Durazzo T C. Polysubstance and alcohol dependence: unique abnormalities of magnetic resonance-derived brain metabolite levels.. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 2013, 130: 30-37 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[34] Xia Y, Ma D, Hu J. Effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 genotype on N-acetylaspartate levels and neurocognition in non-smoking, active alcoholics.. Behav Brain Funct, 2012, 8: 42 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[35] Mon A, Durazzo T C, Meyerhoff D J. Glutamate, GABA, and other cortical metabolite concentrations during early abstinence from alcohol and their associations with neurocognitive changes.. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 2012, 125: 27-36 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[36] Hermann D, Weber-Fahr W, Sartorius A. Translational magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals excessive central glutamate levels during alcohol withdrawal in humans and rats.. Biol Psychiatry, 2012, 71: 1015-1021 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[37] Thoma R, Mullins P, Ruhl D. Perturbation of the glutamate-glutamine system in alcohol dependence and remission.. Neuropsychopharmacol, 2011, 36: 1359-1365 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[38] Modi S, Bhattacharya M, Kumar P. Brain metabolite changes in alcoholism: localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the occipital lobe.. Eur J Rad, 2011, 79: 96-100 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[39] Gazdzinski S, Durazzo T C, Mon A. Cerebral white matter recovery in abstinent alcoholics--a multimodality magnetic resonance study.. Brain, 2010, 133: 1043-1053 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[40] Schuff N, Neylan T C, Fox-Bosetti S. Abnormal N-acetylaspartate in hippocampus and anterior cingulate in posttraumatic stress disorder.. Psychiatry Res-NeuroImag, 2008, 162: 147-157 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[41] Gazdzinski S, Durazzo T C, Yeh P H. Chronic cigarette smoking modulates injury and short-term recovery of the medial temporal lobe in alcoholics.. Psychiatry Res-NeuroImag, 2008, 162: 133-145 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[42] Lee E, Jang D P, Kim J J. Alteration of brain metabolites in young alcoholics without structural changes.. NeuroReport, 2007, 18: 1511-1514 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[43] Ende G, Walter S, Welzel H. Alcohol consumption significantly influences the MR signal of frontal choline-containing compounds.. NeuroImage, 2006, 32: 740-746 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[44] Durazzo T C, Gazdzinski S, Banys P. Cigarette smoking exacerbates chronic alcohol-induced brain damage: a preliminary metabolite imaging study.. Alcoholism-Clin Exp Res, 2004, 28: 1849-1860 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[45] Schweinsburg B C, Alhassoon O M, Taylor M J. Effects of alcoholism and gender on brain metabolism.. AJP, 2003, 160: 1180-1183 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[46] Parks M H, Dawant B M, Riddle W R. Longitudinal Brain Metabolic Characterization of Chronic Alcoholics With Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res, 2002, 26: 1368-1380 CrossRef Google Scholar

[47] Schweinsburg B C, Taylor M J, Alhassoon O M. Chemical Pathology in Brain White Matter of Recently Detoxified Alcoholics: A 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Investigation of Alcohol-Associated Frontal Lobe Injury. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res, 2001, 25: 924-934 CrossRef Google Scholar

[48] Estilaei M R, Matson G B, Payne G S. Effects of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on the Broad Phospholipid Signal in Human Brain: An In Vivo 31P MRS Study. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res, 2001, 25: 89-97 CrossRef Google Scholar

[49] Estilaei M R, Matson G B, Payne G S. Effects of Abstinence From Alcohol on the Broad Phospholipid Signal in Human Brain: An In Vivo 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res, 2001, 25: 1213-1220 CrossRef Google Scholar

[50] Bendszus M, Weijers H G, Wiesbeck G, et al. Sequential MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in patients who underwent recent detoxification for chronic alcoholism: correlation with clinical and neuropsychological data. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2001, 22: 1926-1932. Google Scholar

[51] Schweinsburg B C, Taylor M J, Videen J S. Elevated myo-Inositol in Gray Matter of Recently Detoxified but Not Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics: A Preliminary MR Spectroscopy Study. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res, 2000, 24: 699-705 CrossRef Google Scholar

[52] Seitz D, Widmann U, Seeger U. Localized Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Cerebellum in Detoxifying Alcoholics. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res, 1999, 23: 158-163 CrossRef Google Scholar

[53] Jagannathan N R, Desai N G, Raghunathan P. Brain metabolite changes in alcoholism: An in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study. Magn Reson Imag, 1996, 14: 553-557 CrossRef Google Scholar

[54] Meyerhoff D J, MacKay S, Sappey-Marinier D. Effects of chronic alcohol abuse and HIV infection on brain phosphorus metabolites.. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res, 1995, 19: 685-692 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[55] Martin P R, Gibbs S J, Nimmerrichter A A. Brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in recently abstinent alcoholics.. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res, 1995, 19: 1078-1082 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[56] Bartsch A J, Homola G, Biller A, et al. Manifestations of early brain recovery associated with abstinence from alcoholism. Brain : a journal of neurology, 2007, 130: 36-47. Google Scholar

[57] Bauer J, Pedersen A, Scherbaum N. Craving in alcohol-dependent patients after detoxification is related to glutamatergic dysfunction in the nucleus accumbens and the anterior cingulate cortex.. Neuropsychopharmacol, 2013, 38: 1401-1408 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[58] Ende G, Welzel H, Walter S. Monitoring the effects of chronic alcohol consumption and abstinence on brain metabolism: a longitudinal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.. Biol Psychiatry, 2005, 58: 974-980 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[59] Frye M A, Hinton D J, Karpyak V M. Anterior Cingulate Glutamate Is Reduced by Acamprosate Treatment in Patients With Alcohol Dependence.. J Clin PsychoPharmacol, 2016, 36: 669-674 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[60] Schulte M, Goudriaan A, Kaag A. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on brain glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations and on smoking cessation: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.. J Psychopharmacol, 2017, 31: 1377-1379 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[61] Schulte M H J, Kaag A M, Wiers R W. Prefrontal Glx and GABA concentrations and impulsivity in cigarette smokers and smoking polysubstance users.. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 2017, 179: 117-123 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[62] Gallinat J, Schubert F. Regional cerebral glutamate concentrations and chronic tobacco consumption.. Pharmacopsychiatry, 2007, 40: 64-67 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[63] Mennecke A, Gossler A, Hammen T. Physiological effects of cigarette smoking in the limbic system revealed by 3 tesla magnetic resonance spectroscopy.. J Neural Transm, 2014, 121: 1211-1219 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[64] O'Neill J, Tobias M C, Hudkins M, et al. Glutamatergic neurometabolites during early abstinence from chronic methamphetamine abuse. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol, 2014, 18: pyu059. Google Scholar

[65] Crocker C E, Bernier D C, Hanstock C C. Prefrontal glutamate levels differentiate early phase schizophrenia and methamphetamine addiction: a (1)H MRS study at 3Tesla.. Schizophrenia Res, 2014, 157: 231-237 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[66] Sung Y H, Yurgelun-Todd D A, Shi X F. Decreased frontal lobe phosphocreatine levels in methamphetamine users.. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 2013, 129: 102-109 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[67] Sung Y H, Carey P D, Stein D J. Decreased frontal N-acetylaspartate levels in adolescents concurrently using both methamphetamine and marijuana.. Behavioural Brain Res, 2013, 246: 154-161 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[68] Cloak C C, Alicata D, Chang L. Age and sex effects levels of choline compounds in the anterior cingulate cortex of adolescent methamphetamine users.. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 2011, 119: 207-215 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[69] Sung Y H, Cho S C, Hwang J. Relationship between N-acetyl-aspartate in gray and white matter of abstinent methamphetamine abusers and their history of drug abuse: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 2007, 88: 28-35 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[70] Chang L, Ernst T, Grob C S. Cerebral1H MRS alterations in recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ?ecstasy?) users. J Magn Reson Imag, 1999, 10: 521-526 CrossRef Google Scholar

[71] Chang L, Ernst T, Speck O. Additive effects of HIV and chronic methamphetamine use on brain metabolite abnormalities.. AJP, 2005, 162: 361-369 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[72] Daumann J, Fischermann T, Pilatus U. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in ecstasy (MDMA) users.. NeuroSci Lett, 2004, 362: 113-116 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[73] Ernst T, Chang L, Leonido-Yee M. Evidence for long-term neurotoxicity associated with methamphetamine abuse: A 1H MRS study.. Neurology, 2000, 54: 1344-1349 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[74] Nordahl T E, Salo R, Natsuaki Y. Methamphetamine users in sustained abstinence: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2005, 62: 444-452 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[75] Nordahl T E, Salo R, Possin K. Low N-acetyl-aspartate and high choline in the anterior cingulum of recently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent subjects: a preliminary proton MRS study. Psychiatry Res-NeuroImag, 2002, 116: 43-52 CrossRef Google Scholar

[76] Reneman L, Majoie C B, Flick H, et al. Reduced N-acetylaspartate levels in the frontal cortex of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) users: preliminary results. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2002, 23: 231-237. Google Scholar

[77] Reneman L, Majoie C B L M, Schmand B. Prefrontal N-acetylaspartate is strongly associated with memory performance in (abstinent) ecstasy users: preliminary report. Biol Psychiatry, 2001, 50: 550-554 CrossRef Google Scholar

[78] Ernst T, Chang L. Adaptation of brain glutamate plus glutamine during abstinence from chronic methamphetamine use.. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol, 2008, 3: 165-172 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[79] Lin J C, Jan R K, Kydd R R. Investigating the microstructural and neurochemical environment within the basal ganglia of current methamphetamine abusers.. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 2015, 149: 122-127 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[80] Salo R, Buonocore M H, Leamon M. Extended findings of brain metabolite normalization in MA-dependent subjects across sustained abstinence: a proton MRS study.. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 2011, 113: 133-138 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[81] Salo R, Nordahl T E, Buonocore M H. Spatial inhibition and the visual cortex: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging study.. Neuropsychologia, 2011, 49: 830-838 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[82] Salo R, Nordahl T E, Natsuaki Y. Attentional control and brain metabolite levels in methamphetamine abusers.. Biol Psychiatry, 2007, 61: 1272-1280 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[83] Yang W, Yang R, Luo J. Increased Absolute Glutamate Concentrations and Glutamate-to-Creatine Ratios in Patients With Methamphetamine Use Disorders.. Front Psychiatry, 2018, 9: 368 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[84] Liu X L, Li L, Li J N. Brain Behav, 2017, 7: e00769 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[85] Greenwald M K, Woodcock E A, Khatib D. Methadone maintenance dose modulates anterior cingulate glutamate levels in heroin-dependent individuals: A preliminary in vivo (1)H MRS study.. Psychiatry Res-NeuroImag, 2015, 233: 218-224 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[86] Hermann D, Frischknecht U, Heinrich M. MR spectroscopy in opiate maintenance therapy: association of glutamate with the number of previous withdrawals in the anterior cingulate cortex.. Addiction Biol, 2012, 17: 659-667 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[87] Murray D E, Durazzo T C, Schmidt T P, et al. Frontal Metabolite Concentration Deficits in Opiate Dependence Relate to Substance Use, Cognition, and Self-Regulation. Journal of addiction research and therapy, 2016, 7: 286. Google Scholar

[88] Silveri M M, Pollack M H, Diaz C I. Cerebral phosphorus metabolite and transverse relaxation time abnormalities in heroin-dependent subjects at onset of methadone maintenance treatment.. Psychiatry Res-NeuroImag, 2004, 131: 217-226 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[89] Verdejo-García A, Lubman D I, Roffel K. Cingulate biochemistry in heroin users on substitution pharmacotherapy.. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 2013, 47: 244-249 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[90] Yücel M, Lubman D I, Harrison B J. Neuronal, physiological and brain-behavioural abnormalities in opiate-addicted individuals. Mol Psychiatry, 2007, 12: 611-611 CrossRef Google Scholar

[91] Bitter S M, Weber W A, Chu W J. N-acetyl aspartate levels in adolescents with bipolar and/or cannabis use disorders.. J Dual Diagnosis, 2014, 10: 39-43 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[92] van de Giessen E, Weinstein J J, Cassidy C M. Deficits in striatal dopamine release in cannabis dependence.. Mol Psychiatry, 2017, 22: 68-75 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[93] Hermann D, Sartorius A, Welzel H. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) loss in male recreational cannabis users.. Biol Psychiatry, 2007, 61: 1281-1289 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[94] Silveri M M, Jensen J E, Rosso I M. Preliminary evidence for white matter metabolite differences in marijuana-dependent young men using 2D J-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 4 Tesla.. Psychiatry Res-NeuroImag, 2011, 191: 201-211 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[95] Mashhoon Y, Jensen J E, Sneider J T, et al. Lower Left Thalamic Myo-Inositol Levels Associated with Greater Cognitive Impulsivity in Marijuana-Dependent Young Men: Preliminary Spectroscopic Evidence at 4T. Journal of addiction research and therapy, 2013, Suppl 4: 009. Google Scholar

[96] Prescot A P, Locatelli A E, Renshaw P F. Neurochemical alterations in adolescent chronic marijuana smokers: a proton MRS study.. NeuroImage, 2011, 57: 69-75 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[97] Muetzel R L, Marja??ska M, Collins P F. NeuroImage-Clin, 2013, 2: 581-589 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[98] Prescot A P, Renshaw P F, Yurgelun-Todd D A. γ-Amino butyric acid and glutamate abnormalities in adolescent chronic marijuana smokers.. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 2013, 129: 232-239 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[99] Chang L, Ernst T, Strickland T, et al. Gender effects on persistent cerebral metabolite changes in the frontal lobes of abstinent cocaine users. Am J Psychiatry, 1999, 156: 716-722. Google Scholar

[100] Martinez D, Slifstein M, Nabulsi N. Imaging glutamate homeostasis in cocaine addiction with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 positron emission tomography radiotracer [(11)C]ABP688 and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.. Biol Psychiatry, 2014, 75: 165-171 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[101] Yang S, Salmeron B J, Ross T J. Lower glutamate levels in rostral anterior cingulate of chronic cocaine users - A (1)H-MRS study using TE-averaged PRESS at 3 T with an optimized quantification strategy.. Psychiatry Res-NeuroImag, 2009, 174: 171-176 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[102] Li S J, Wang Y, Pankiewicz J. Neurochemical adaptation to cocaine abuse: reduction of N-acetyl aspartate in thalamus of human cocaine abusers. Biol Psychiatry, 1999, 45: 1481-1487 CrossRef Google Scholar

[103] Hulka L M, Scheidegger M, Vonmoos M. Glutamatergic and neurometabolic alterations in chronic cocaine users measured with (1) H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy.. Addiction Biol, 2016, 21: 205-217 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[104] Ke Y, Streeter C C, Nassar L E. Frontal lobe GABA levels in cocaine dependence: a two-dimensional, J-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.. Psychiatry Res-NeuroImag, 2004, 130: 283-293 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[105] Schmaal L, Veltman D J, Nederveen A. N-acetylcysteine normalizes glutamate levels in cocaine-dependent patients: a randomized crossover magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.. Neuropsychopharmacol, 2012, 37: 2143-2152 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[106] Durazzo T C, Gazdzinski S, Banys P, et al. Cigarette Smoking Exacerbates Chronic Alcohol-Induced Brain Damage: A Preliminary Metabolite Imaging Study. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, 2005, 28: 1849-1860. Google Scholar

[107] Meyerhoff D J, Blumenfeld R, Truran D. Effects of heavy drinking, binge drinking, and family history of alcoholism on regional brain metabolites.. Alcoholism-Clin Exp Res, 2004, 28: 650-661 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[108] Mason G F, Krystal J H. MR spectroscopy: its potential role for drug development for the treatment of psychiatric diseases.. NMR Biomed, 2006, 19: 690-701 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[109] Prisciandaro J J, Schacht J P, Prescot A P. Associations Between Recent Heavy Drinking and Dorsal Anterior Cingulate N-Acetylaspartate and Glutamate Concentrations in Non-Treatment-Seeking Individuals with Alcohol Dependence.. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 2016, 40: 491-496 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[110] Meyerhoff D J, Murray D E, Durazzo T C. Brain GABA and Glutamate Concentrations Following Chronic Gabapentin Administration: A Convenience Sample Studied During Early Abstinence From Alcohol.. Front Psychiatry, 2018, 9: 78 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[111] Forstera B, Castro P A, Moraga-Cid G, et al. Potentiation of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Receptors (GABAAR) by Ethanol: How Are Inhibitory Receptors Affected? Front Cell Neurosci, 2016, 10: 114. Google Scholar

[112] Stephens D N, King S L, Lambert J J. Genes Brain Behav, 2017, 16: 149-184 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[113] Alasmari F, Goodwani S, McCullumsmith R E. Role of glutamatergic system and mesocorticolimbic circuits in alcohol dependence.. Prog NeuroBiol, 2018, 171: 32-49 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[114] Gallinat J, Lang U E, Jacobsen L K. Abnormal hippocampal neurochemistry in smokers: evidence from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T.. J Clin PsychoPharmacol, 2007, 27: 80-84 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[115] Mashhoon Y, Janes A C, Jensen J E, et al. Anterior cingulate proton spectroscopy glutamate levels differ as a function of smoking cessation outcome. 2011, 35: 1709-1713. Google Scholar

[116] TE N, R S, Y N, et al. Methamphetamine users in sustained abstinence: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. 2005, 62: 444. Google Scholar

[117] Liu H S, Chou M C, Chung H W. Potential long-term effects of MDMA on the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit: a proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion-tensor imaging study.. Radiology, 2011, 260: 531-540 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[118] Chang L, Mehringer C M, Ernst T. Neurochemical alterations in asymptomatic abstinent cocaine users: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Biol Psychiatry, 1997, 42: 1105-1114 CrossRef Google Scholar

[119] Thompson P M, Andreassen O A, Arias-Vasquez A. ENIGMA and the individual: Predicting factors that affect the brain in 35 countries worldwide.. NeuroImage, 2017, 145: 389-408 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[120] Morley K C, Lagopoulos J, Logge W. Neurometabolite Levels in Alcohol Use Disorder Patients During Baclofen Treatment and Prediction of Relapse to Heavy Drinking.. Front Psychiatry, 2018, 9: 412 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[121] Frye M A, Hinton D J, Karpyak V M. Elevated Glutamate Levels in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Are Associated with Higher Cravings for Alcohol.. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 2016, 40: 1609-1616 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[122] Cowan R L, Joers J M, Dietrich M S. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) correlates inversely with cannabis use in a frontal language processing region of neocortex in MDMA (Ecstasy) polydrug users: a 3 T magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 2009, 92: 105-110 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[123] Wu Q, Qi C, Long J. Front Psychiatry, 2018, 9: 478 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[124] Xing X X, Zuo X N. The anatomy of reliability: a must read for future human brain mapping. Sci Bull, 2018, 63: 1606-1607 CrossRef Google Scholar

[125] Zuo X N, Xu T, Milham M P. Harnessing reliability for neuroscience research.. Nat Hum Behav, 2019, 3: 768-771 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[126] Baeshen A, Wyss P O, Henning A, et al. Test-Retest Reliability of the Brain Metabolites GABA and Glx With JPRESS, PRESS, and MEGA-PRESS MRS Sequences in vivo at 3T. J Magn Reson Imaging, 2019, 51: 1181-1191. Google Scholar

[127] Shungu D C, Mao X, Gonzales R. Brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) detection in vivo with the J-editing (1) H MRS technique: a comprehensive methodological evaluation of sensitivity enhancement, macromolecule contamination and test-retest reliability.. NMR Biomed, 2016, 29: 932-942 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[128] Prisciandaro J J, Mikkelsen M, Saleh M G. Magn Reson Imag, 2020, 65: 109-113 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[129] Jensen J E, Auerbach R P, Pisoni A, et al. Localized MRS reliability of in vivo glutamate at 3 T in shortened scan times: a feasibility study. NMR Biomed, 2017, 30: 10.1002/nbm.3771. Google Scholar

[130] Morris P, Bachelard H. Reflections on the application of 13C-MRS to research on brain metabolism.. NMR Biomed, 2003, 16: 303-312 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[131] Lanz B, Xin L, Millet P. In vivo quantification of neuro-glial metabolism and glial glutamate concentration using 1H-[13C] MRS at 14.1T.. J Neurochem, 2014, 128: 125-139 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[132] Sibson N R, Dhankhar A, Mason G F. Stoichiometric coupling of brain glucose metabolism and glutamatergic neuronal activity.. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1998, 95: 316-321 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[133] Illes P, Burnstock G, Tang Y. Astroglia-Derived ATP Modulates CNS Neuronal Circuits.. Trends Neurosciences, 2019, 42: 885-898 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[134] Voineskos D, Blumberger D M, Zomorrodi R. Altered Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Electroencephalographic Markers of Inhibition and Excitation in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Major Depressive Disorder.. Biol Psychiatry, 2019, 85: 477-486 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[135] Shine J M, Poldrack R A. Principles of dynamic network reconfiguration across diverse brain states.. NeuroImage, 2018, 180: 396-405 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[136] Khanna A, Pascual-Leone A, Michel C M. Microstates in resting-state EEG: current status and future directions.. NeuroSci BioBehaval Rev, 2015, 49: 105-113 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

Copyright 2020 Science China Press Co., Ltd. 《中国科学》杂志社有限责任公司 版权所有

京ICP备17057255号       京公网安备11010102003388号