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SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, Volume 60 , Issue 6 : 064611(2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11433-017-9022-y

The electrochemical performance of super P carbon black in reversible Li/Na ion uptake

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  • ReceivedMar 13, 2017
  • AcceptedMar 17, 2017
  • PublishedApr 14, 2017
PACS numbers

Abstract

Super P carbon black (SPCB) has been widely used as a conducting additive in Li/Na ion batteries to improve the electronic conductivity. However, there has not yet been a comprehensive study on its structure and electrochemical properties for Li/Na ion uptake, though it is important to characterize its contribution in any study of active materials that uses this additive in non-negligible amounts. In this article the structure of SPCB has been characterized and a comprehensive study on the electrochemical Li/Na ion uptake capability and reaction mechanisms are reported. SPCB exhibits a considerable lithiation capacity (up to 310 mAh g–1) from the Li ion intercalation in the graphite structure. Sodiation in SPCB undergoes two stages: Na ion intercalation into the layers between the graphene sheets and the Na plating in the pores between the nano-graphitic domains, and a sodiation capacity up to 145 mAh g–1 has been achieved. Moreover, the influence of the type and content of binders on the lithiation and sodiation properties has been investigated. The cycling stability is much enhanced with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) binder in the electrode and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) in the electrolyte; and a higher content of binder improves the Coulombic efficiency during dis-/charge.


Funded by

Chinese Scholarship Council(CSC)

Opening fund of State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics

“A green Deal in Energy Materials”(ADEM)


Acknowledgment

This work was financially supported by the Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC), Opening Fund of State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, and the “A Green Deal in Energy Materials” (ADEM) grant funded by Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and ADEM industrial partners.


Interest statement

These authors contributed equally to this work.


Supplement

Appendix


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Characterization on SPCB. (a)-(c) SEM images at different magnifications; (d) XRD pattern; (e) Raman spectrum.

  • Figure a1

    (Color online) Coulombic efficiencies of the SPCB based electrodes containing 90% and 60% of active materials in Li ion batteries: galvanostatic dis-/charge at C/3 for the PVDF (a) and NaCMC (b) based electrodes; and rate capability test for the electrodes using PVDF (c) and NaCMC (d) as the binder, C=300 mA g–1.

  • Figure a2

    (Color online) Coulombic efficiencies of the SPCB based electrodes containing 90% and 60% of active materials in Na ion batteries: galvanostatic cycling at C/3 for the PVDF (a) and NaCMC (b) based electrodes; and rate capability test for the electrodes using PVDF (c) and NaCMC (d) as the binder, C=300 mA g–1.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Electrochemical Li ion storage performance of the SPCB based electrodes containing 90% and 60% of active materials: reversible capacity retentions of the SPCB electrodes with PVDF (a) and NaCMC (b) binder cycling at C/3, and the rate capabilities of the electrodes that use PVDF (c) and NaCMC (d) as the binder, C=300 mA g–1.

  • Figure a3

    (Color online) Voltage profiles of the SPCB based Li (a) and Na (b) ion anodes at 1st, 2nd and 50th cycle. Here the Li/Na ion battery anodes contain 60% SPCB and 40% NaCMC.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Electrochemical Na ion storage performance of the SPCB based electrodes containing 90% and 60% of active materials: reversible capacity retentions of the SPCB electrodes that use PVDF (a) and NaCMC (b) binder cycling at C/3, and the rate capabilities of the electrodes using PVDF (c) and NaCMC (d) as the binder, C=300 mA g–1.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Voltage profile of the SPCB based Li (a) and Na (b) ion anode at 1st, 2nd and 50th cycle cycling at C/3; and cyclic voltammograms of the SPCB based Li (c) and Na (d) ion anode at 1st, 2nd and 5th cycle, Scan rate: 0.5 mV s–1. Here the Li/Na ion battery anodes contain 60% SPCB and 40% PVDF.

  • Figure a4

    (Color online) Cyclic voltammograms of the SPCB based Li (a) and Na (b) ion anodes at different scan rates. Here the Li/Na ion battery anodes contain 60% SPCB and 40% PVDF.

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