logo

Mesoporous carbon biomaterials

More info
  • AcceptedMar 2, 2015
  • PublishedMar 24, 2015

Abstract

Nano-biotechnology provides highly efficient and versatile strategies to improve the diagnostic precision and therapeutic efficiency of serious diseases. The development of new biomaterial systems provides great opportunities for the successful clinical translation of nano-biotechnology for personalized biomedicine to benefit patients. As a new inorganic material system, mesoporous carbon biomaterials (MCBs) combine the merits of a mesoporous nanostructure and carbonaceous composition, showing superior qualities compared with traditional mesoporous silica and other carbon-based nanosystems, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and fullerene. Thus, this review focuses on the rational design, chemical synthesis, and biomedical applications of MCBs. The synthetic strategies for MCBs, especially mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), are summarized, and several representative biomedical applications of MCBs are discussed in detail. MCBs perform well for on-demand drug-release, photothermal therapy, synergistic therapy, fluorescent labeling of cancer cells, bio-adsorption of in vivo toxic pathogenic substances, peptide separation, and biosensing. The preliminary biosafety issue of MCBs is also briefly discussed. Finally, the critical issues and challenges facing the future development of MCBs for clinical translation are considered. There is great promise for MCBs to reach clinical translations for biomedical applications based on their unique nanostructure, composition, and biocompatibility once some critical issues are fully addressed.


References

[1] Baughman RH, Zakhidov AA, de Heer WA. Carbon nanotubes—the route toward applications. Science, 2002, 297: 787-792

[2] Allen MJ, Tung VC, Kaner RB. Honeycomb carbon: a review of graphene. Chem Rev, 2010, 110: 132-145

[3] Liu Z, Robinson JT, Tabakman SM, Yang K, Dai HJ. Carbon materials for drug delivery & cancer therapy. Mater Today, 2011, 14:316-323

[4] Partha R, Conyers JL. Biomedical applications of functionalized fullerene-based nanomaterials. Int J Nanomed, 2009, 4: 261-275

[5] Wang J, Hu Z, Xu J, Zhao Y. Therapeutic applications of low-toxicity spherical nanocarbon materials. NPG Asia Mater, 2014, 6: e84

[6] Guo Y, Shi DL, Cho HS, et al. In vivo imaging and drug storage by quantum-dot-conjugated carbon nanotubes. Adv Funct Mater,2008, 18: 2489-2497

[7] Li RB, Wu R, Zhao L, et al. P-glycoprotein antibody functionalized carbon nanotube overcomes the multidrug resistance of human leukemia cells. ACS Nano, 2010, 4: 1399-1408

[8] Liu Z, Fan AC, Rakhra K, et al. Supramolecular stacking of doxorubicin on carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer therapy. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2009, 48: 7668-7672

[9] Liu Z, Sun XM, Nakayama-Ratchford N, Dai HJ. Supramolecular chemistry on water-soluble carbon nanotubes for drug loading and delivery. ACS Nano, 2007, 1: 50-56

[10] Liu Y, Hughes TC, Muir BW, et al. Water-dispersible magnetic carbon nanotubes as T2-weighted MRI contrast agents. Biomaterials2014, 35: 378-386.

[11] Liu Y, Hao X, Waddington LJ, Qiu J, Hughes TC. Surface modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with engineered self-assembled RAFT diblock coatings. Aus J Chem, 2014, 67: 151-158.

[12] Lim SY, Shen W, Gao ZQ. Carbon quantum dots and their applications. Chem Soc Rev, 2015, 44: 362-381

[13] Zheng M, Liu S, Li J, et al. Integrating oxaliplatin with highly luminescent carbon dots: an unprecedented theranostic agent for personalized medicine. Adv Mater, 2014, 26: 3554-3560

[14] Zhu S, Meng Q, Wang L, et al. Highly photoluminescent carbon dots for multicolor patterning, sensors, and bioimaging. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2013, 52: 3953-3957

[15] Chen Y, Xu P, Shu Z, et al. Multifunctional graphene oxide-based triple stimuli-responsive nanotheranostics. Adv Funct Mater, 2014,24: 4386-4396

[16] Chung C, Kim YK, Shin D, et al. Biomedical applications of graphene and graphene oxide. Acc Chem Res, 2013, 46: 2211-2224

[17] Liu Z, Robinson JT, Sun XM, Dai HJ. PEGylated nanographene oxide for delivery of water-insoluble cancer drugs. J Am Chem Soc,2008, 130: 10876-10877

[18] Chen Y, Tan C, Zhang H, Wang L. Two-dimensional graphene analogues for biomedical applications. Chem Soc Rev, doi: 0.1039/ C4CS00300D

[19] Ku SH, Lee M, Park CB. Carbon-based nanomaterials for tissue engineering. Adv Healthc Mater, 2013, 2: 244-260

[20] Yang K, Feng LZ, Shi XZ, Liu Z. Nano-graphene in biomedicine: theranostic applications. Chem Soc Rev, 2013, 42: 530-547

[21] Chung C, Kim YK, Shin D, et al. Biomedical applications of graphene and graphene oxide. Acc Chem Res, 2013, 46: 2211-2224

[22] Beg S, Rizwan M, Sheikh AM, et al. Advancement in carbon nanotubes: basics, biomedical applications and toxicity. J Pharm Pharmacol,2011, 63: 141-163

[23] Cha CY, Shin SR, Annabi N, Dokmeci MR, Khademhosseini A. Carbon-based nanomaterials: multifunctional materials for biomedical engineering. ACS Nano, 2013, 7: 2891-2897

[24] Ambrogio MW, Thomas CR, Zhao YL, Zink JI, Stoddartt JF. Mechanized silica nanoparticles: a new frontier in theranostic nanomedicine. Acc Chem Res, 2011, 44: 903-913

[25] Chen Y, Chen H, Shi J. In vivo bio-safety evaluations and diagnostic/ therapeutic applications of chemically designed mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Adv Mater, 2013, 25: 3144-3176

[26] Chen Y, Chen H, Shi J. Drug delivery/imaging multifunctionality of mesoporous silica-based composite nanostructures. Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2014, 11: 917-930

[27] Chen Y, Chen H, Shi J. Inorganic nanoparticle-based drug codelivery nanosystems to overcome the multidrug resistance of cancer cells. Mol Pharm, 2014, 11: 2495-2510

[28] Chen Y, Meng Q, Wu M, et al. Hollow mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles: a generic intelligent framework-hybridization approach for biomedicine. J Am Chem Soc, 2014, 136: 16326-16334

[29] Chen Y, Chen HR, Guo LM, et al. Hollow/rattle-type mesoporous nanostructures by a structural difference-based selective etching strategy. ACS Nano, 2010, 4: 529-539

[30] Chen Y, Chen HR, Shi JL. Construction of homogenous/heterogeneous hollow mesoporous silica nanostructures by silica-etching chemistry: principles, synthesis, and applications. Acc Chem Res,2014, 47: 125-137

[31] Chen Y, Chu C, Zhou YC, et al. Reversible pore-structure evolution in hollow silica nanocapsules: large pores for sirna delivery and nanoparticle collecting. Small, 2011, 7: 2935-2944

[32] Wu SH, Hung Y, Mou CY. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as nanocarriers. Chem Commun, 2011, 47: 9972-9985

[33] Mamaeva V, Sahlgren C, Linden M. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles in medicine-recent advances. Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 2013, 65:689-702

[34] Tang FQ, Li LL, Chen D. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles: synthesis, biocompatibility and drug delivery. Adv Mater, 2012, 24: 1504-1534

[35] Shi JL, Chen Y, Chen HR. Progress on the multifunctional mesoporous silica-based nanotheranostics. J Inorg Mater, 2013, 28: 1-11

[36] Ryoo R, Joo SH, Kruk M, Jaroniec M. Ordered mesoporous carbons. Adv Mater, 2001, 13: 677-681

[37] Liang CD, Li ZJ, Dai S. Mesoporous carbon materials: synthesis and modification. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2008, 47: 3696-3717

[38] Kim TW, Chung PW, Slowing II, et al. Structurally ordered mesoporous carbon nanoparticles as transmembrane delivery vehicle in human cancer cells. Nano Lett, 2008, 8: 3724-3727

[39] Gu JL, Su SS, Li YS, He QJ, Shi JL. Hydrophilic mesoporous carbon nanoparticles as carriers for sustained release of hydrophobic anti- cancer drugs. Chem Commun, 2011, 47: 2101-2103

[40] Sun Z, Liu Y, Li B, et al. General synthesis of discrete mesoporous carbon microspheres through a confined self-assembly process in inverse opals. ACS Nano, 2013, 7: 8706-8714

[41] Liang CD, Hong KL, Guiochon GA, Mays JW, Dai S. Synthesis of a large-scale highly ordered porous carbon film by self-assembly of block copolymers. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2004, 43: 5785-5789

[42] Zhang F, Gu D, Yu T, et al. Mesoporous carbon single-crystals from organic-organic self-assembly. J Am Chem Soc, 2007, 129: 7746-7747

[43] Fang Y, Gu D, Zou Y, et al. A low-concentration hydrothermal synthesis of biocompatible ordered mesoporous carbon nanospheres with tunable and uniform size. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2010, 49:7987-7991

[44] Liu J, Yang T, Wang DW, et al. A facile soft-template synthesis of mesoporous polymeric and carbonaceous nanospheres. Nat Commun,2013, 4: 2798

[45] Tang J, Liu J, Li C, et al. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon spheres with extra-large pores through assembly of diblock copolymer micelles. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2015, 54: 588-593

[46] Li M, Xue J. Ordered mesoporous carbon nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies from sphere to rod via a soft-template route. J Colloid Interface Sci, 2012, 377: 169-175

[47] Guo LM, Zhang JM, He QJ, et al. Preparation of millimetre-sized mesoporous carbon spheres as an effective bilirubin adsorbent and their blood compatibility. Chem Commun, 2010, 46: 7127-7129

[48] Chen Y, Xu P, Wu M, et al. Colloidal RBC-shaped, hydrophilic, and hollow mesoporous carbon nanocapsules for highly efficient biomedical engineering. Adv Mater, 2014, 26: 4294-4301

[49] Chen Y, Xu PF, Chen HR, et al. Colloidal HPMO nanoparticles: silica-etching chemistry tailoring, topological transformation, and nano-biomedical applications. Adv Mater, 2013, 25: 3100-3105

[50] Qiao ZA, Guo BK, Binder AJ, et al. Controlled synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanostructures via a “silica-assisted” strategy. Nano Lett, 2013, 13: 207-212

[51] Zhu J, Liao L, Bian XJ, et al. pH-controlled delivery of doxorubicin to cancer cells, based on small mesoporous carbon nanospheres. Small, 2012, 8: 2715-2720

[52] Zhou L, Dong K, Chen Z, Ren J, Qu X. Near-infrared absorbing mesoporous carbon nanoparticle as an intelligent drug carrier for dual-triggered synergistic cancer therapy. Carbon, 2015, 82: 479-488

[53] Xu G, Liu S, Niu H, Lv W, Wu Ra. Functionalized mesoporous carbon nanoparticles for targeted chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer cells under near-infrared irradiation. RSC Adv, 2014, 4:33986-33997

[54] Zhu S, Chen C, Chen Z, et al. Thermo-responsive polymer-functionalized mesoporous carbon for controlled drug release. Mater Chem Phys, 2011, 126: 357-363

[55] Lu J, Liong M, Zink JI, Tamanoi F. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a delivery system for hydrophobic anticancer drugs. Small, 2007,3: 1341-1346

[56] Saha D, Warren KE, Naskar AK. Controlled release of antipyrine from mesoporous carbons. Microporous Mesoporous Mat, 2014,196: 327-334

[57] Schornack PA, Gillies RJ. Contributions of cell metabolism and H+ diffusion to the acidic pH of tumors. Neoplasia, 2003, 5: 135-145

[58] Crayton SH, Tsourkas A. pH-titratable superparamagnetic iron oxide for improved nanoparticle accumulation in acidic tumor microenvironments. ACS Nano, 2011, 5: 9592-9601

[59] Chen Y, Ye D, Wu M, et al. Break-up of two-dimensional MnO2 nanosheets promotes ultrasensitive pH-triggered theranostics of cancer. Adv Mater, 2014, 26: 7019-7026

[60] Chen Y, Yin Q, Ji XF, et al. Manganese oxide-based multifunctionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for pH-responsive MRI, ultrasonography and circumvention of MDR in cancer cells. Biomaterials,2012, 33: 7126-7137

[61] Chen Y, Chen HR, Sun Y, et al. Multifunctional mesoporous composite nanocapsules for highly efficient MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound cancer surgery. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2011, 50:12505-12509

[62] Wang X, Chen HR, Chen Y, et al. Perfluorohexane-encapsulated mesoporous silica nanocapsules as enhancement agents for highly efficient high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Adv Mater,2012, 24: 785-791

[63] Chen Y, Chen H, Shi J. Nanobiotechnology promotes noninvasive high-intensity focused ultrasound cancer surgery. Adv Healthc Mater,2015, 4: 158-165

[64] Fang Y, Zheng G, Yang J, et al. Dual-pore mesoporous carbon@silica composite core- shell nanospheres for multidrug delivery. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2014, 53: 5366-5370

[65] Zhu W, Zhao Q, Zheng X, et al. Mesoporous carbon as a carrier for celecoxib: the improved inhibition effect on MDA-MB-231 cells migration and invasion. Asian J Pharm Sci, 2014, 9: 82-91

[66] Wang T, Zou M, Jiang H, et al. Synthesis of a novel kind of carbon nanoparticle with large mesopores and macropores and its application as an oral vaccine adjuvant. Eur J Pharm Sci, 2011, 44: 653-659

[67] Wang X, Pan Y, Wang J, Tian Y. Synthesis of magnetic dual-mesoporous carbon spheres and lysozyme release behavior. Micropor Mesopor Mat, 2013, 180: 257-261

[68] Robinson JT, Tabakman SM, Liang YY, et al. Ultrasmall reduced graphene oxide with high near-infrared absorbance for photothermal therapy. J Am Chem Soc, 2011, 133: 6825-6831

[69] Tian B, Wang C, Zhang S, Feng LZ, Liu Z. Photothermally enhanced photodynamic therapy delivered by nano-graphene oxide. ACS Nano, 2011, 5: 7000-7009

[70] Feng LY, Wu L, Qu XG. New horizons for diagnostics and therapeutic applications of graphene and graphene oxide. Adv Mater, 2013,25: 168-186

[71] Hu SH, Chen YW, Hung WT, Chen IW, Chen SY. Quantum-dottagged reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for bright fluorescence bioimaging and photothermal therapy monitored in situ. Adv Mater, 2012, 24: 1748-1754

[72] Markovic ZM, Harhaji-Trajkovic LM, Todorovic-Markovic BM, et al. In vitro comparison of the photothermal anticancer activity of graphene nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes. Biomaterials, 2011,32: 1121-1129

[73] Wang Y, Wang K, Yan X, Huang R. A general strategy for dual-triggered combined tumor therapy based on template semi-graphitized mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Adv Healthc Mater, 2014, 3:485-489

[74] Wang Y, Wang K, Zhang R, et al. Synthesis of core-shell graphitic carbon@silica nanospheres with dual-ordered mesopores for cancer-targeted photothermochemotherapy. ACS Nano, 2014, 8:7870-7879

[75] Wang L, Sun Q, Wang X, et al. Using hollow carbon nanospheres as a light-induced free radical generator to overcome chemotherapy resistance. J Am Chem Soc, 2015, 137: 1947-1955

[76] Li H, Kang Z, Liu Y, Lee ST. Carbon nanodots: synthesis, properties and applications. J Mater Chem, 2012, 22: 24230-24253

[77] Li L, Wu G, Yang G, et al. Focusing on luminescent graphene quantum dots: current status and future perspectives. Nanoscale, 2013,5: 4015-4039

[78] Luo PG, Sahu S, Yang ST, et al. Carbon “quantum” dots for optical bioimaging. J Mater Chem B, 2013, 1: 2116-2127

[79] Chen B, Li F, Li S, et al. Large scale synthesis of photoluminescent carbon nanodots and their application for bioimaging. Nanoscale,2013, 5: 1967-1971

[80] Ding C, Zhu A, Tian Y. Functional surface engineering of C-dots for fluorescent biosensing and in vivo bioimaging. Acc Chem Res,2014, 47: 20-30

[81] Cui Y, Hu Z, Zhang C, Liu X. Simultaneously enhancing up-conversion fluorescence and red-shifting down-conversion luminescence of carbon dots by a simple hydrothermal process. J Mater Chem B,2014, 2: 6947-6952

[82] Chen H, Wang GD, Tang W, et al. Gd-encapsulated carbonaceous dots with efficient renal clearance for magnetic resonance imaging. Adv Mater, 2014, 26: 6761-6766

[83] Kong Q, Zhang L, Liu J, et al. Facile synthesis of hydrophilic multi-colour and upconversion photoluminescent mesoporous carbon nanoparticles for bioapplications. Chem Commun, 2014, 50:15772-15775

[84] He QJ, Ma M, Wei CY, Shi JL. Mesoporous carbon@silicon-silica nanotheranostics for synchronous delivery of insoluble drugs and luminescence imaging. Biomaterials, 2012, 33: 4392-4402

[85] Duffy P, Magno LM, Yadav RB, et al. Incandescent porous carbon microspheres to light up cells: solution phenomena and cellular uptake. J Mater Chem, 2012, 22: 432-439

[86] Dong Y, Lin H, Jin Q, et al. Synthesis of mesoporous carbon fibers with a high adsorption capacity for bulky dye molecules. J Mater Chem A, 2013, 1: 7391-7398

[87] Liu Y, Wu Z, Chen X, et al. A hierarchical adsorption material by incorporating mesoporous carbon into macroporous chitosan membranes. J Mater Chem, 2012, 22: 11908-11911

[88] Dong Y, Lin HM, Qu FY. Synthesis of ferromagnetic ordered mesoporous carbons for bulky dye molecules adsorption. Chem Eng J,2012, 193: 169-177

[89] Zhuang X, Wan Y, Feng CM, Shen Y, Zhao DY. Highly efficient adsorption of bulky dye molecules in wastewater on ordered mesoporous carbons. Chem Mater, 2009, 21: 706-716

[90] Guo LM, Zhang LX, Zhang JM, et al. Hollow mesoporous carbon spheres-an excellent bilirubin adsorbent. Chem Commun, 2009:6071-6073

[91] Kamisako T, Kobayashi Y, Takeuchi K, et al. Recent advances in bilirubin metabolism research: the molecular mechanism of hepatocyte bilirubin transport and its clinical relevance. J Gastroenterol,2000, 35: 659-664

[92] Guo LM, Cui XZ, Li YS, et al. Hollow mesoporous carbon spheres with magnetic cores and their performance as separable bilirubin adsorbents. Chem Asian J, 2009, 4: 1480-1485

[93] Tao G, Zhang L, Hua Z, et al. Highly efficient adsorbents based on hierarchically macro/mesoporous carbon monoliths with strong hydrophobicity. Carbon, 2014, 66: 547-559

[94] Liu RL, Ji WJ, He T, et al. Fabrication of nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbons through a hybrid dual-template route or CO2 capture and haemoperfusion. Carbon, 2014, 76: 84-95

[95] Qin H, Gao P, Wang F, et al. Highly efficient extraction of serum peptides by ordered mesoporous carbon. Angew Chem Int Ed,2011, 50: 12218-12221

[96] Qin H, Zhao L, Li R, Wu Ra, Zou H. Size-selective enrichment of N-linked glycans using highly ordered mesoporous carbon material and detection by MALDI-TOF MS. Anal Chem, 2011, 83: 7721-7728

[97] Cheng G, Zhou MD, Zheng SY. Facile synthesis of magnetic mesoporous hollow carbon microspheres for rapid capture of low-concentration peptides. ACS Appl Mater Inter, 2014, 6: 12719-12728

[98] You C, Li X, Zhang S, et al. Electrochemistry and biosensing of glucose oxidase immobilized on Pt-dispersed mesoporous carbon. Microchimica Acta, 2009, 167: 109-116

[99] Lu X, Xiao Y, Lei Z, et al. A promising electrochemical biosensing platform based on graphitized ordered mesoporous carbon. J Mater Chem, 2009, 19: 4707-4714

[100] Xiang D, Yin L, Ma J, et al. Amperometric hydrogen peroxide and glucose biosensor based on NiFe2/ordered mesoporous carbon nanocomposites. Analyst, 2015, 140: 644-653

[101] Sun W, Guo CX, Zhu Z, Li CM. Ionic liquid/mesoporous carbon/ protein composite microelectrode and its biosensing application. Electrochem Commun, 2009, 11: 2105-2108

[102] He QJ, Shi JL, Zhu M, Chen Y, Chen F. The three-stage in vitro degradation behavior of mesoporous silica in simulated body fluid. Micropor Mesopor Mat, 2010, 131: 314-320

[103] He QJ, Zhang ZW, Gao F, Li YP, Shi JL. In vivo biodistribution and urinary excretion of mesoporous silica nanoparticles: effects of particle size and PEGylation. Small, 2011, 7: 271-280

[104] Huang XL, Li LL, Liu TL, et al. The shape effect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles on biodistribution, clearance, and biocompatibility in vivo. ACS Nano, 2011, 5: 5390-5399

[105] Chung TH, Wu SH, Yao M, et al. The effect of surface charge on the uptake and biological function of mesoporous silica nanoparticles3T3-L1 cells and human mesenchymal stem cells. Biomaterials,2007, 28: 2959-2966

[106] Hudson SP, Padera RF, Langer R, Kohane DS. The biocompatibility of mesoporous silicates. Biomaterials, 2008, 29: 4045-4055

[107] Li ZX, Barnes JC, Bosoy A, Stoddart JF, Zink JI. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles in biomedical applications. Chem Soc Rev, 2012, 41:2590-2605

Copyright 2019 Science China Press Co., Ltd. 《中国科学》杂志社有限责任公司 版权所有

京ICP备18024590号-1