SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 61, Issue 4: 593-606(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-017-9057-3

Mechanical and corrosion properties of partially degradable bone screws made of pure iron and stainless steel 316L by friction welding

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  • ReceivedApr 17, 2017
  • AcceptedMay 25, 2017
  • PublishedJul 21, 2017


This paper reports a series of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo mechanical and corrosion studies of pin and screw prototype made of friction welded pure iron and 316L type stainless steel aiming to evaluate the applicability of the partially removable bone screws. Results showed that the pin possesses bending, tensile and torsional strengths of 1706±147, 666±7 and 0.34±0.03 MPa, respectively. The pin degraded at an average weight loss rate of 17.15×10−5 g cm−2day−1 and released Fe ions at an average concentration of 2.38 ppm. Plastic deformation induced by torsion increased the corrosion rate of the pin from 0.0014 to 0.0137 mm year−1. The maximum pull-out load of the screw prototypes was 3800 N with a calculated failure strength by shear load equal to 22.2 kN which is higher than the strength of the cortical bone. Detailed analysis of the rat’s blood cells during 60 days of the pin implantation indicated a normal response with low neutrophils/lymphocytes ratio of 0.3‒0.5. Iron ion concentration in the rat’s blood slightly increased from 55 to 61 ppm without affecting the tissue recovering and healing phase. Histological evaluation confirmed the presence of macrophage cells as a normal response to the released iron particles around the iron section of the pin.

Funded by

the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education

the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada(NSERC)


This work was supported by the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education, the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). The authors thank Panjaitan B, Paramitha D, Setiadi MA and Karja NWK for their help during the in vivo animal implantation and histological analysis.

Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Contributions statement

All authors contributed to the preparation and discussion of the manuscript. The final version of the manuscript was approved by all authors.

Author information

Ahmad Kafrawi Nasution received his PhD degree in biomedical engineering from the University of Technology of Malaysia in 2016 under the supervision of Dr. Hermawan and Dr. Abdul Kadir. He is now a lecturer at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Muhammadiyah University of Riau in Indonesia where he is building a research group on biomaterials.

Mokhamad Fakhrul Ulum received his PhD degree in biomedical engineering from the University of Technology of Malaysia in 2016 under the supervision of Dr. Hermawan and Dr. Abdul Kadir. He is now a lecturer at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University in Indonesia where he was previously trained as veterinarian.

Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir received his PhD degree in medical engineering from Imperial College London in 2005. He is now a professor at the Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, University of Technology of Malaysia in Malaysia leading an active research center in medical devices technology (MediTeg).

Hendra Hermawan received his PhD degree in materials engineering from Laval University in 2009. After spending some academic years in Asia, he returned to Laval University in 2014 as an assistant professor and also researcher at CHU de Québec Research Center, Québec, Canada. His research interests include biomaterials, biodegradable metals and corrosion.


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