SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 60, Issue 9: 839-848(2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-017-9083-9

A novel lithium-ion battery comprising Li-rich@Cr2O5 composite cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode with controllable coulombic efficiency

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  • ReceivedJun 19, 2017
  • AcceptedJul 24, 2017
  • PublishedAug 30, 2017


Through meticulous design, a Li-lacking Cr2O5 cathode is physically mixed with Li-rich Li1.2Ni0.13Co0.13Mn0.54O2 (LNCM) cathode to form composite cathodes LNCM@xCr2O5 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, mass ratio) in order to make use of the excess lithium produced by the Li-rich component in the first charge-discharge process. The initial coulombic efficiency (ICE) of LNCM half-cell has been significantly increased from 75.5% (x = 0) to 108.9% (x = 0.35). A novel full-cell comprising LNCM@Cr2O5 composite cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode has been developed. Such electrode accordance, i.e., LNCM@ Cr2O5//Li4Ti5O12 (“L-cell”), shows a particularly high ICE of 97.7%. The “L-cell” can transmit an outstanding reversible capacity up to 250 mA h g−1 and has 94% capacity retention during 50 cycles. It also has superior rate capacities as high as 122 and 94 mA h g−1 at 1.25 and 2.5 A g−1 current densities, which are even better in comparison of Li-rich//graphite full-cell (“G-cell”). The high performance of “L-cell” benefiting from the well-designed coulombic efficiency accordance mechanism displays a great potential for fast charge-discharge applications in future high-energy lithium ion batteries.

Funded by

National Natural Science Foundation of China(51577175)



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51577175), and NSAF (U1630106). We are also grateful to Elementec Ltd. in Suzhou for its technical support.

Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Contributions statement

Ding X performed the main experiments; He X and Liao J participated in the characterization. Zou B, Li Y, Tang Z and Shao Y conceived and supervised the project; Ding X wrote the manuscript with support from Chen C, Zou B, Tang Z. All authors contributed to the general discussion.

Author information

Xiang Ding received his bachelor degree from Jilin University (JLU) in 2015. He is currently pursuing his master degree under the supervision of Prof. Chunhua Chen at the Institute for CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversions, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). His research interests are the materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

Chunhua Chen is a professor of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at USTC. He graduated from USTC in 1986 and received his master degree at USTC in 1989. He obtained his PhD degree at Delft University of Technology (TUD), Netherlands, in 1998. Then he worked in Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), USA, until 2002. His research interest focuses on the materials and systems for secondary batteries. He has published more than 200 research papers with a current H-index of 46.


Supplementary information

Supporting data are available in the online version of the paper.


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  • Figure 1

    Schematic diagram of the “L-cell” coulombic efficiency accordance mechanism.

  • Figure 2

    XRD patterns of (a) the synthesized powders Li-rich layer-structured LNCM and Cr2O5 cathodes and (b) Li4Ti5O12 and graphite anodes, respectively.

  • Figure 3

    SEM images of (a) LNCM, (b) Cr2O5, (c) LTO and (d) graphite.

  • Figure 4

    The electrochemical properties of several cathode materials: (a) the selected charge-discharge curves of LNCM at 0.1 and 0.5 C; (b) the selected charge-discharge curves of Cr2O5 at 0.1 and 0.5 C; (c) the cycling performances of LNCM and Cr2O5 at 0.5 C; (d) the first charge-discharge curves of LNCM@Cr2O5 composites with different x values.

  • Figure 5

    (a) The 1st charge-discharge curve of LTO at 0.1 C (1.0‒3.0 V, 1 C = 175 mA h g−1); (b) the cycling performance of LTO at 0.1 C; (c) the rate performance of LTO at different charge rates (1 C discharge); (d) the selected cycle curves of graphite at 0.1 C (0‒2V, 1 C = 372 mA h g−1); (e) the cycling performance of graphite at 0.1 C; (f) the rate performance of graphite at different charge rates (1 C discharge).

  • Figure 6

    (a) The selected charge and discharge curves of “G-cell” at a current density of 0.025 A g−1 (1.8‒4.6 V); (b) the selected charge and discharge curves of “L-cell” at a current density of 0.025 A g−1 (0.5‒2.96 V); (c) the cycling performances of “G-cell” and “L-cell” at a current density of 0.025 A g−1; (d) the rate performances of “G-cell” and “L-cell” at different discharge rates (0.25 A g−1 charge).

  • Figure 7

    EIS of the LNCM//LTO full-cell and “L-cell” (a) after 3 cycles and (b) after 50 cycles at discharged state of 2.3 V.

  • Figure 8

    Ex-situ XRD of first cycled, A1: Li-rich cathode in half cell; A2: Cr2O5 cathode in half cell; A3: LNCM@0.35Cr2O5 composite cathode in half cell; A4: LNCM@0.35Cr2O5 composite cathode in “L-cell”.

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