logo

SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 61, Issue 1: 101-111(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-017-9135-y

Atypical BiOCl/Bi2S3 hetero-structures exhibiting remarkable photo-catalyst response

More info
  • ReceivedJun 21, 2017
  • AcceptedOct 3, 2017
  • PublishedNov 27, 2017

Abstract

We demonstrate the fabrication of BiOCl/Bi2S3 which is well defined at a large scale. The BiOCl/Bi2S3 hetero-structures exhibit an enhanced photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) compared to BiOCl and Bi2S3, attributed to the interface between Bi2S3 and BiOCl, which effectively separate the photo-induced electron-hole pairs and suppress their recombination.


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21371023)

and the National Key Basic Research Program of China(2015CB251100)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21371023), and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB251100).


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Tanveer M synthesized and modified all samples, performed all materials characterization and data analysis, and wrote this manuscript; Wu Y revised this manuscript; Cao C provided suggestions, helped interpret experimental results, and assisted in the preparation and revision of this manuscript. All authors contributed to the general dissicussion.


Author information

Muhammad Tanveer obtained his MSc degree in solid state physics in 2009 from the University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Later in 2011, he joined Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT), China and completed his PhD degree in materials physics and chemistry under the supervision of Prof. Chuanbao Cao. Currently, he is an assistant professor in the University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan and the University of Lahore (UOL), Gujrat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan. His research is focused on the fabrication of novel, unusual and atypical nano/micro architectures for energy harvesting and versatile applications.


Chuanbao Cao is currently the chief responsible professor of the School of Materials Science and Engineering, Director of Research Center of Materials Science of Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT), China. His research is focused on the electrochemical energy storage and conversion including electrode materials oflithium ion battery, super-capacitors and photo-electrochemical materials. Until now, he has published more than 300 peer-review research papers, holds or has filed 50 patents and patent applications.


Supplement

Supplementary information

Experimental details are available in the online version of the paper.


References

[1] Tahir M, Mahmood N, Zhu J, et al. One dimensional graphitic carbon nitrides as effective metal-free oxygen reduction catalysts. Sci Rep, 2015, 5: 12389 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[2] Tahir M, Cao C, Butt FK, et al. Tubular graphitic-C3N4: a prospective material for energy storage and green photocatalysis. J Mater Chem A, 2013, 1: 13949-13955 CrossRef Google Scholar

[3] Tahir M, Cao C, Mahmood N, et al. Multifunctional g-C3N4 nanofibers: a template-free fabrication and enhanced optical, electrochemical, and photocatalyst properties. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2014, 6: 1258-1265 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[4] Wu Y, Cao C, Zhu Y, et al. Cube-shaped hierarchical LiNi1/3Co1/3- Mn1/3O2 with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes as high-performance cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. J Mater Chem A, 2015, 3: 15523-15528 CrossRef Google Scholar

[5] Meng R, Jiang J, Liang Q, et al. Design of graphene-like gallium nitride and WS2/WSe2 nanocomposites for photocatalyst applications. Sci China Mater, 2016, 59: 1027-1036 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Wu Y, Zhang J, Cao C. Scalable and general synthesis of spinel manganese-based cathodes with hierarchical yolk-shell structure and superior lithium storage properties. Nano Res, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s12274-017-1625-0 CrossRef Google Scholar

[7] Lu X, Li Y, Bai X, et al. Multifunctional Cu1.94S-Bi2S3@polymer nanocomposites for computed tomography imaging guided photothermal ablation. Sci China Mater, 2017, 60: 777-788 CrossRef Google Scholar

[8] Liu H, Ma H, Joo J, et al. Contribution of multiple reflections to light utilization efficiency of submicron hollow TiO2 photocatalyst. Sci China Mater, 2016, 59: 1017-1026 CrossRef Google Scholar

[9] Xi G, Yue B, Cao J, et al. Fe3O4/WO3 hierarchical core-shell structure: high-performance and recyclable visible-light photocatalysis. Chem Eur J, 2011, 17: 5145-5154 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[10] Xi G, Ye J. Synthesis of bismuth vanadate nanoplates with exposed {001} facets and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic properties. Chem Commun, 2010, 46: 1893-1895 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[11] Liang Q, Li Z, Bai Y, et al. Reduced-sized monolayer carbon nitride nanosheets for highly improved photoresponse for cell imaging and photocatalysis. Sci China Mater, 2017, 60: 109-118 CrossRef Google Scholar

[12] Wu Y, Cao C, Zhang J, et al. Hierarchical LiMn2O4 hollow cubes with exposed {111} planes as high-power cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016, 8: 19567-19572 CrossRef Google Scholar

[13] Chen Y, Tian G, Guo Q, et al. One-step synthesis of a hierarchical Bi2S3nanoflower\In2S3 nanosheet composite with efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity. CrystEngComm, 2015, 17: 8720-8727 CrossRef Google Scholar

[14] Shi Y, Chen Y, Tian G, et al. One-pot controlled synthesis of sea-urchin shaped Bi2S3/CdS hierarchical heterostructures with excellent visible light photocatalytic activity. Dalton Trans, 2014, 43: 12396-12404 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[15] Zhou J, Tian G, Chen Y, et al. Growth rate controlled synthesis of hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity. Sci Rep, 2015, 4: 4027 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[16] Tahir M, Mahmood N, Zhang X, et al. Bifunctional catalysts of Co3O4@GCN tubular nanostructured (TNS) hybrids for oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions. Nano Res, 2015, 8: 3725-3736 CrossRef Google Scholar

[17] Tanveer M, Cao C, Ali Z, et al. Template free synthesis of CuS nanosheet-based hierarchical microspheres: an efficient natural light driven photocatalyst. CrystEngComm, 2014, 16: 5290-5300 CrossRef Google Scholar

[18] Tanveer M, Cao C, Aslam I, et al. Effect of the morphology of CuS upon the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. RSC Adv, 2014, 4: 63447-63456 CrossRef Google Scholar

[19] Ali Z, Cao C, Li J, et al. Effect of synthesis technique on electrochemical performance of bismuth selenide. J Power Sources, 2013, 229: 216-222 CrossRef Google Scholar

[20] Ali Z, Mirza M, Cao C, et al. Wide range photodetector based on catalyst free grown indium selenide microwires. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2014, 6: 9550-9556 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[21] Aslam I, Cao C, Tanveer M, et al. A novel Z-scheme WO3/CdWO4 photocatalyst with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of organic pollutants. RSC Adv, 2015, 5: 6019-6026 CrossRef Google Scholar

[22] Aslam I, Cao C, Tanveer M, et al. A facile one-step fabrication of novel WO3/Fe2(WO4)3·10.7H2O porous microplates with remarkable photocatalytic activities. CrystEngComm, 2015, 17: 4809-4817 CrossRef Google Scholar

[23] Khalid S, Cao C, Wang L, et al. Microwave assisted synthesis of porous NiCo2O4 microspheres: application as high performance asymmetric and symmetric supercapacitors with large areal capacitance. Sci Rep, 2016, 6: 22699 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[24] Hou J, Cao C, Idrees F, et al. Hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheets derived from silk for ultrahigh-capacity battery anodes and supercapacitors. ACS Nano, 2015, 9: 2556-2564 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[25] Hou J, Cao C, Ma X, et al. From rice bran to high energy density supercapacitors: a new route to control porous structure of 3D carbon. Sci Rep, 2015, 4: 7260 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[26] Fujishima A, Honda K. Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode. Nature, 1972, 238: 37-38 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[27] Zhang T, Oyama T, Horikoshi S, et al. Photocatalytic decomposition of the sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate surfactant in aqueous titania suspensions exposed to highly concentrated solar radiation and effects of additives. Appl Catal B-Environ, 2003, 42: 13-24 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Spadavecchia F, Cappelletti G, Ardizzone S, et al. Solar photoactivity of nano-N-TiO2 from tertiary amine: role of defects and paramagnetic species. Appl Catal B-Environ, 2010, 96: 314-322 CrossRef Google Scholar

[29] Sun WT, Yu Y, Pan HY, et al. CdS quantum dots sensitized TiO2 nanotube-array photoelectrodes. J Am Chem Soc, 2008, 130: 1124-1125 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[30] Zhang LW, Wang YJ, Cheng HY, et al. Synthesis of porous Bi2WO6 thin films as efficient visible-light-active photocatalysts. Adv Mater, 2009, 21: 1286-1290 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Xia J, Yin S, Li H, et al. Self-assembly and enhanced photocatalytic properties of BiOI hollow microspheres via a reactable ionic liquid. Langmuir, 2011, 27: 1200-1206 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[32] Zheng C, Cao C, Ali Z. In situ formed Bi/BiOBrxI1−x heterojunction of hierarchical microspheres for efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity. Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2015, 17: 13347-13354 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[33] Xia J, Yin S, Li H, et al. Improved visible light photocatalytic activity of sphere-like BiOBr hollow and porous structures synthesized via a reactable ionic liquid. Dalton Trans, 2011, 40: 5249 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[34] Lv J, Kako T, Li Z, et al. Synthesis and photocatalytic activities of NaNbO3 rods modified by In2O3 nanoparticles. J Phys Chem C, 2010, 114: 6157-6162 CrossRef Google Scholar

[35] Dunkle SS, Helmich RJ, Suslick KS. BiVO4 as a visible-light photocatalyst prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. J Phys Chem C, 2009, 113: 11980-11983 CrossRef Google Scholar

[36] Henle J, Simon P, Frenzel A, et al. Nanosized BiOX (X=Cl, Br, I) particles synthesized in reverse microemulsions. Chem Mater, 2007, 19: 366-373 CrossRef Google Scholar

[37] Zhang X, Ai Z, Jia F, et al. Generalized one-pot synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of hierarchical BiOX (X=Cl, Br, I) nanoplate microspheres. J Phys Chem C, 2008, 112: 747-753 CrossRef Google Scholar

[38] Chang X, Yu G, Huang J, et al. Enhancement of photocatalytic activity over NaBiO3/BiOCl composite prepared by an in situ formation strategy. Catal Today, 2010, 153: 193-199 CrossRef Google Scholar

[39] Gao F, Zeng D, Huang Q, et al. Chemically bonded graphene/BiOCl nanocomposites as high-performance photocatalysts. Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2012, 14: 10572 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[40] Cheng H, Huang B, Qin X, et al. A controlled anion exchange strategy to synthesize Bi2S3 nanocrystals/BiOCl hybrid architectures with efficient visible light photoactivity. Chem Commun, 2012, 48: 97-99 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[41] Cao J, Xu B, Lin H, et al. Novel Bi2S3-sensitized BiOCl with highly visible light photocatalytic activity for the removal of rhodamine B. Catal Commun, 2012, 26: 204-208 CrossRef Google Scholar

[42] Butler MA. Photoelectrolysis and physical properties of the semiconducting electrode WO2. J Appl Phys, 1977, 48: 1914-1920 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[43] Zheng L, Xu Y, Song Y, et al. Nearly monodisperse CuInS2 hierarchical microarchitectures for photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light. Inorg Chem, 2009, 48: 4003-4009 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[44] Zhu L, Xie Y, Zheng X, et al. Growth of compound BiIII-VIA-VIIA crystals with special morphologies under mild conditions. Inorg Chem, 2002, 41: 4560-4566 CrossRef Google Scholar

[45] Yang J, Qi L, Lu C, et al. Morphosynthesis of rhombododecahedral silver cages by self-assembly coupled with precursor crystal templating. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2005, 44: 598-603 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[46] Li L, Cao R, Wang Z, et al. Template synthesis of hierarchical Bi2E3 (E=S, Se, Te) core-shell microspheres and their electrochemical and photoresponsive properties. J Phys Chem C, 2009, 113: 18075-18081 CrossRef Google Scholar

[47] Zhou X, Hu C, Hu X, et al. Plasmon-assisted degradation of toxic pollutants with Ag-AgBr/Al2O3 under visible-light irradiation. J Phys Chem C, 2010, 114: 2746-2750 CrossRef Google Scholar

[48] Yang Y, Zhang G, Yu S, et al. Efficient removal of organic contaminants by a visible light driven photocatalyst Sr6Bi2O9. Chem Eng J, 2010, 162: 171-177 CrossRef Google Scholar

[49] Madhusudan P, Ran J, Zhang J, et al. Novel urea assisted hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchical BiVO4/Bi2O2CO3 nanocomposites with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. Appl Catal B-Environ, 2011, 110: 286-295 CrossRef Google Scholar

[50] Linsebigler AL, Lu G, Yates JT. Photocatalysis on TiO2 surfaces: principles, mechanisms, and selected results. Chem Rev, 1995, 95: 735-758 CrossRef Google Scholar

[51] Hirakawa T, Nosaka Y. Properties of O2·-and OH·formed in TiO2 aqueous suspensions by photocatalytic reaction and the influence of H2O2 and some ions. Langmuir, 2002, 18: 3247-3254 CrossRef Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    XRD patterns of (a) BiOCl precursor, (b) BiOCl/Bi2S3 hetero-structure (C3) and (c) Bi2S3.

  • Figure 2

    (a) XPS survey spectrum of a representative BiOCl/Bi2S3 hetero-structure (C3) and the corresponding high-resolution XPS spectra of Bi 4f (b), O 1s (c) and Cl 2p (d).

  • Figure 3

    (a–c) SEM images of BiOCl/Bi2S3 hetero-structure (C3); (d) HRTEM image taken from the joint of plate and a prong of a single EC like particle of BiOCl/Bi2S3 hetero-structure (C3).

  • Figure 4

    UV-vis absorption spectra of BiOCl precursor, BiOCl/Bi2S3 composites (C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5) and Bi2S3.

  • Figure 5

    Absorption spectra of photo-degradation of MO aqueous solution by different catalysts (20 mg) within 50 min of visible light irradiation at room temperature Bi2S3 (a), BiOCl (b), P25 (c), BiOCl/Bi2S3 (d) hetero-structure (C3).

  • Figure 6

    (a) A plot of the extent of photo-degradation of MO aqueous solution by different catalysts (20 mg) within 50 min of visible light irradiation at room temperature; (b) the MB normalization concentration (from the optical absorbance measurements at 504 nm) in the solution with different catalysts vs. the exposure time of the as prepared products and commercially available P25 powder; (c) first order rate constant K (min−1) of the as prepared products and commercially available P25 powder; (d) stability test of as prepared BiOCl/Bi2S3 hetero-structure composite (C3) in degrading of MO aqueous solution for 6 repeated cycles.

  • Figure 7

    SEM images of the as-prepared products for different reaction durations, under the same typical experimental conditions (a) 2 h in the absence of sulfur powder, (b) 4 h (C1), (c) 6 h (C2), (d) 10 h (C4),(e) 12 h (C5), (f) 14 h (Bi2S3).

  • Figure 8

    Growth mechanism; starting from BiOCl and formation of BiOCl/Bi2S3 hetero-structure composites then transformation into Bi2S3.

  • Figure 9

    Schematic illustration of the charge transfer and the possible reaction mechanism of BiOCl/Bi2S3 hetero-structure under visible light irradiation.

  • Figure 10

    Fluorescence spectra of 2-hydroxyl terephthalic acid (TAOH) solution generated by Bi2S3 (a), BiOCl (b), BiOCl/Bi2S3 (c), hetero-structure composite (C3) for 50 min, and (d) comparison of the amount of final TAOH generated after 50 min from (a) to (c).

Copyright 2019 Science China Press Co., Ltd. 《中国科学》杂志社有限责任公司 版权所有

京ICP备18024590号-1