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SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 61, Issue 2: 243-253(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-017-9168-9

Flexible all-solid-state micro-supercapacitor based on Ni fiber electrode coated with MnO2 and reduced graphene oxide via electrochemical deposition

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  • ReceivedSep 5, 2017
  • AcceptedNov 23, 2017
  • PublishedJan 19, 2018

Abstract

Flexible and micro-sized energy conversion/storage components are extremely demanding in portable and multifunctional electronic devices, especially those small, flexible, roll-up and even wearable ones. Here in this paper, a two-step electrochemical deposition method has been developed to coat Ni fibers with reduced graphene oxide and MnO2 subsequently, giving rise to Ni@reduced-graphene-oxide@MnO2 sheath-core flexible electrode with a high areal specific capacitance of 119.4 mF cm−2 at a current density of 0.5 mA cm−2 in 1 mol L−1 Na2SO4 electrolyte. Using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-LiCl as a solid state electrolyte, two Ni@reduced-graphene-oxide@MnO2 flexible electrodes were assembled into a freestanding, lightweight, symmetrical fiber-shaped micro-supercapacitor device with a maximum areal capacitance of26.9 mF cm−2. A high power density of 0.1 W cm−3 could be obtained when the energy density was as high as 0.27 mW h cm−3. Moreover, the resulting micro-supercapacitor device also demonstrated good flexibility and high cyclic stability. The present work provides a simple, facile and low-cost method for the fabrication of flexible, lightweight and wearable energy conversion/storage micro-devices with a high-performance.


Funded by

the Ministry of Education of China(IRT1148)

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(20905038,21173116)

Synergistic Innovation Center for Organic Electronics and Information Displays

Jiangsu Province “Six Talent Peak”(2015-JY-015)

Jiangsu Provincial Natural Science Foundation(BK20141424)

the Program of NUPT(NY214088)

and the Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics of Southeast University(I2015010)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of China (IRT1148), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51772157 and 21173116), Synergistic Innovation Center for Organic Electronics and Information Displays, Jiangsu Province “Six Talent Peak” (2015-JY-015), Jiangsu Provincial Natural Science Foundation (BK20141424), the Program of Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NY214088), and the Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics of Southeast University (I2015010).


Interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Feng X and Ma Y designed and engineered this work; Zhou J, Chen N, Ge Y, Zhu H carried out the experiments. Zhou J and Hou W wrote this paper. All authors contributed to the general discussion.


Author information

Jinhua Zhou received her MSc degree under the supervision of Prof. Xiaomiao Feng in the Department of Materials Chemistry at the Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications in 2016. She is currently a PhD under the supervision of Prof. Wenhua Hou at Nanjing University. Her research is mainly focused on the synthesis of 2D materials, and their application for energy conversion and storage devices.


Ningna Chen obtained her MSc degree from Nanjing University of Posts & Telecommunications in 2015. Currently, she is pursuing her PhD degree under the supervision of Prof. Wenhua Hou at Nanjing University. Her research is mainly focused on the synthesis of two-dimensional layered transition metal oxide nanomaterials, and their application for energy conversion and storage devices.


Xiaomiao Feng is a Professor in the Department of Materials Chemistry at the Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications. She received her PhD from Nanjing University, Nanjing (China) in 2007. Between July 2012 and July 2013 she joined the research group of Prof. J. Wang at the Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego as a visiting scholar. Her research interests include nanomaterials, naonomachines, biosensors and super capacitors.


Wenhua Hou is a professor in the School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Nanjing University. He received his BS (1985) and PhD (1993) in chemistry from Nanjing University. He worked as visiting scholar at the State University of New York at Albany and University of California, San Diego. His research interests include the synthesis of 2D layer nanomaterials for potocatalysis and energy storage.


Supplement

Supplementary information

Supporting data are available in the online version of this paper.


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  • Figure 1

    Schematic illustration for the fabrication process of Ni@rGO@MnO2 FE via electrochemical deposition and the symmetrical FSC composed of two Ni@rGO@MnO2 FEs.

  • Figure 2

    SEM images of Ni@rGO FE (a, b), Ni@rGO@MnO2 FE (c, d), TEM images of rGO peeled from Ni@rGO FE (e) and MnO2/rGO peeled from Ni@rGO@MnO2 FE (f).

  • Figure 3

    (a) FTIR spectra of GO, rGO and MnO2/rGO; (b) XRD pattern of MnO2/rGO.

  • Figure 4

    XPS spectra survey scan of GO and MnO2/rGO (a), C 1s of GO and MnO2/rGO (b), Mn 2p of MnO2/rGO (c).

  • Figure 5

    CV curves (a) and corresponding specific capacitances (b) of Ni@rGO@MnO2 FE at different scan rates in 1 mol L−1 Na2SO4; GCD curves (c) and corresponding specific capacitances (d) of Ni@rGO@MnO2 FE at different current densities in 1 mol L−1 Na2SO4.

  • Figure 6

    CV curves (a) and corresponding specific capacitances (b) of symmetrical fiber-shaped Ni@rGO@MnO2 FSC at different scan rates; GCD curves (c) and corresponding specific capacitances (d) of symmetrical fiber-shaped Ni@rGO@MnO2 FSC at different current densities.

  • Figure 7

    (a) Ragone plots of symmetrical fiber-shaped Ni@rGO@MnO2 FSC and the comparison with the previous FSCs; (b) capacitance retention after 3000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 1 mA cm−2 (inset: optical photo shows that two devices in series light a LED).

  • Figure 8

    The CV curves of the symmetric fiber-shaped Ni@rGO@MnO2 FSC device at 100 mV s−1 with different bending angles (a) and bending cycle numbers (b). GCD curves of a single FSC (black lines) and two FSCs (red lines) connected in series (c) and in parallel (d).

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