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One-step electrodeposition fabrication of Ni3S2 nanosheet arrays on Ni foam as an advanced electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors

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  • ReceivedAug 1, 2018
  • AcceptedSep 26, 2018
  • PublishedOct 30, 2018

Abstract

Ni3S2 nanosheet (NS) arrays on Ni foam were fabricated by a simple one-step electrodeposition strategy, and used as a kind of electrode material for asymmetric supercapacitors. The Ni3S2 NS arrays are interconnected, which can be regarded as bridges between these individual nanoparticle units. The electrochemical performances were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry techniques in a three-electrode system. The Ni3S2 NS arrays display a specific capacitance of 773.6 F g−1 at 1 A g−1, and excellent rate property of 84.3% at 10 A g−1. The performance of the Ni3S2 NS arrays was further investigated in an asymmetric supercapacitor for potential practical application. The asymmetric supercapacitor using the Ni3S2 electrode and reduced graphene oxide electrode as positive and negative electrodes, respectively, exhibits an energy density of 41.2 W h kg−1 at 1.6 kW kg−1. When up to 16 kW kg−1, it holds 25.3 W h kg−1. These excellent electrochemical performances are attributed to the improved electronic conductivity and rich redox reaction sites from Ni3S2 NS arrays. Our results indicate that the Ni3S2 NS arrays have great potential for supercapacitors.


Funded by

National Key R&D Program of China(#2018YFF0215200)

Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province(#201602104)

Support Program for Innovative Talents in Liaoning University(#LR2017061)

Basic Research Project of Liaoning Province(#LF2017007)

and Scientific Public Welfare Research Foundation of Liaoning Province(#20170054)


Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge the financial support from the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFF0215200), the Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (201602104), the Support Program for Innovative Talents in Liaoning University (LR2017061), the Basic Research Project of Liaoning Province (LF2017007), and the Scientific Public Welfare Research Foundation of Liaoning Province (20170054).


Interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Xu J conceived the idea of this study and revised the paper. Sun Y performed the synthesis of the electrode and prepared the manuscript. Liu X revised the paper and coordinated this work. The paper was discussed through contributions of all authors. All authors have given approval to the final version of the paper.


Author information

Jiasheng Xu is currently an associate professor at the College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University. He got his PhD degree from Dalian University of Technology in 2009. He worked as a postdoctor in Jilin University from 2010 to 2012, and worked as a research professor in the University of Ulsan from 2012 to 2013. He got JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowship for Research in the University of Tokyo from 2013 to 2015. His current interest is on photocatalysis, lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors.


Yudong Sun received his bachelor degree from Shenyang University of Technology in 2016. He is currently a graduate student at the College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University. His current research focuses on transition metal based materials for electrochemical energy storage application.


Supplement

Supplementary information

Supporting data are available in the online version of the paper.


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  • Figure 1

    Schematic illustrations of the electrodeposition process for the Ni3S2 NS arrays on Ni foam substrate.

  • Figure 2

    XRD patterns of the Ni3S2 NS arrays on Ni foam. The diffraction peaks of Ni3S2 are marked by asterisks and those of Ni foam are marked by rectangular frame. Several vertical lines at the bottom are the standard diffraction peaks of Ni3S2 from JCPDS card No. 44-1418.

  • Figure 3

    SEM images of Ni3S2 NS arrays on Ni foam with different morphologies by altering the sweep cycles in the electrodeposition process. (a–d) Low- and high-magnification SEM images of Ni3S2 NS arrays after 10 cycles (NS@NF-10), scale bars = 20 μm, 10 μm, 1 μm and 200 nm, respectively. (e–h) Low- and high-magnification SEM images of Ni3S2 NS arrays after 20 cycles (NS@NF-20), scale bars = 30 μm, 10 μm, 1 μm and 100 nm, respectively. (i–l) Low- and high-magnification SEM images of Ni3S2 sample after 40 cycles (NS@NF-40), scale bars = 20 μm, 10 μm, 1 μm and 200 nm, respectively.

  • Figure 4

    (a–d) The typical TEM images with different resolution of the Ni3S2 NSs, scale bars = 100, 50, 50 and 20 nm, respectively. (e, f) High-resolution TEM images of the Ni3S2 NSs, scale bar = 5 nm. The inset shows the corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern of the Ni3S2 NSs. (The regions marked by red rectangles and red dashed lines show the core-shell structure; the regions marked by blue circles show some nuclei on the surface of NS).

  • Figure 5

    (a) SEM image of the Ni3S2 NS arrays. (b) Overlapped EDS mapping of the Ni3S2 sample taken from the rectangular frame in (a). (c) S mapping. (d) Ni mapping.

  • Figure 6

    (a) XPS full spectra of Ni3S2 NS arrays. (b) Ni 2p spectrum. (c) S 2p spectrum.

  • Figure 7

    (a) CV curves of NS@NF-20 electrode at various sweep rates. (b) GCD curves of NS@NF-20 at various current densities. (c) Comparative CV curves of NS@NF-10, NS@NF-20 and NS@NF-40 electrodes at a sweep rate of 5 mV s−1. (d) GCD curves of the three electrodes at a current density of 1 A g−1. (e) The specific capacitances of the three electrodes as a function of the current density. (f) Nyquist plots of the three electrodes. The inset shows the enlarged plots in the high frequency part.

  • Figure 8

    Electrochemical test of the NS@NF-20//rGO asymmetric supercapacitor. (a) Schematic illustration of the assembled NS@NF-20//rGO asymmetric supercapacitor. (b) CV curves at different voltages windows. (c) CV curves at various sweep rates. (d) GCD curves at different current densities of 2–20 A g−1. (e) The specific capacitances at different current densities of 2–20 A g−1. The inset shows a digital photograph of two NS@NF-20//rGO asymmetric supercapacitors in series lighting up a red light-emitting diode (LED). (f) Ragone plots of the NS@NF-20//rGO asymmetric supercapacitor.

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