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SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 62, Issue 7: 936-946(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-018-9386-8

Compact self-standing layered film assembled by V2O5·nH2O/CNTs 2D/1D composites for high volumetric capacitance flexible supercapacitors

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  • ReceivedNov 9, 2018
  • AcceptedDec 17, 2018
  • PublishedJan 17, 2019

Abstract

Flexible supercapacitors (SCs) are attractive energy storage devices for wearable electronics, but their applications are hindered by their low volumetric energy densities. Two dimensional (2D) non-carbon nanomaterials are the most promising pseudocapacitive materials for high volumetric capacitance electrodes. However, they are poorly conductive and prone to self-stacking, which results in unsatisfactory electrochemical performance. In this work, large-scale V2O5·nH2O ultrathin nanosheets are synthesized by a facile and scalable method and transformed into layered and compact composite films with one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The self-standing films show an optimized volumetric capacitance of 521.0 F cm−3 with only 10 wt% of CNTs, which is attributed to dramatically enhanced electrical conductivity beyond the electrical percolation threshold, high dispersion of pseudocapacitive V2O5·nH2O nanosheets, and high mass density of the films. All-solid-state flexible SCs made of V2O5·nH2O/CNTs films show a maximum energy density of 17.4 W h L−1.


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51702048,21603157)

the National Basic Research Program of China(2015CB932600)

the Jiangxi Provincial Department of Education(GJJ170459,GJJ170457)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51702048 and 21603157), the National Basic Research Program of China (2015CB932600), and Jiangxi Provincial Department of Education (GJJ170459 and GJJ170457).


Interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Guo K performed the experiments; Li Y and Li C conducted the characterization; Yu N and Li H performed the data analysis; all authors contributed to the discussion and preparation of the manuscript. The final version of the manuscript was approved by all authors.


Author information

Kai Guo received his PhD degree in material science from Huazhong University of Science and Technology in 2017 and then joined the School of Chemistry, Biology and Materials Science, East China University of Technology. His research interest focuses on material synthesis and device design of flexible supercapacitors and aqueous batteries.


Neng Yu received her PhD degree from Huazhong University of Science and Technology in 2015. Currently, she works in the School of Chemistry, Biology and Materials Science, East China University of Technology. Her research interest is in the field of electrochemical energy materials and devices, with a focus on hybrid nanomaterials, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.


Huiqiao Li received her BSc degree in chemistry from Zhengzhou University in 2003, and then received her PhD degree in physical chemistry from Fudan University in 2008. Afterwards, she worked for 4 years at Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. Currently, she is a full Professor of School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). Her research interest includes energy storage materials and electrochemical power sources such as lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries and supercapacitors.


Supplement

Supplementary information

Supporting data are available in the online version of the paper.


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  • Figure 1

    Schematic fabrication process of V2O5·nH2O/CNTs composite films.

  • Figure 2

    Characterization of V2O5·nH2O aerogel: (a) XRD, (b) V 2p XPS spectrum, (c) SEM image and (d) TEM image.

  • Figure 3

    Top-view SEM images of (a) CNT, (b) V2O5·nH2O, and (c) VC-5% films. Inset in (a) and (b): the cross-section SEM image of the CNT and V2O5·nH2O film, respectively. The cross-section SEM image of the (d) VC-5%, (e) VC-10%, and (f) VC-15% films. (g) Cross-section SEM image and the elemental mapping image of (h) C, (i) O, and (j) V elements in the composite film.

  • Figure 4

    The effects of CNTs mass ratio on (a) the square resistance, (b) the density and thickness of different film samples. Schematic cross-section microstructure, ion diffusion, and electron transfer in composite films with (c) a small (5 wt%) and large amount (≥10 wt%) of CNTs. Schemes in (a): the microstructure of layered composite films with different ratio of CNTs (black lines) and V2O5·nH2O nanosheets (yellow planes), in which the contact points of crossed CNTs are marked with red semi-spheres.

  • Figure 5

    Electrochemical performances of different film samples. (a) CV curves, (b) gravimetric capacitance, (c) volumetric capacitance, and (d) EIS plots of different film samples. (e) CV and (f) GCD curves of the VC-10% film electrode. (g) The volumetric capacitance of different flexible film electrodes.

  • Figure 6

    Electrochemical performance of symmetric SCs based on VC-10% film: (a) CV curves, (b) GCD curves, (c) volumetric capacitance, (d) gravimetric Ragone plot and (e) cycling performance.

  • Figure 7

    Flexibility characterization of flexible SCs. (a) Scheme of a bent flexible SC. (b) The CV curves, (c) GCD curves, and (d) capacitance retention of a flexible SC bent to different degrees.

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