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SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 62, Issue 7: 955-964(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-018-9408-3

Amphiphilic core-sheath structured composite fiber for comprehensively performed supercapacitor

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  • ReceivedDec 25, 2018
  • AcceptedFeb 15, 2019
  • PublishedMar 15, 2019

Abstract

As an important branch of fiber-shaped energy storage devices, the fiber-shaped supercapacitor has been widely studied recently. However, it remains challenging to simultaneously achieve fast electron transport and excellent ion accessibility in one single fiber electrode of the fiber-shaped supercapacitor. Herein, a novel family of amphiphilic core-sheath structured carbon nanotube composite fibers has been developed and applied to the fiber-shaped supercapacitor to address the above challenge. The polyaniline-modified hydrophilic sheath of the composite fiber electrode effectively enhanced the electrochemical property via advancing ion accessibility, while Au-deposited hydrophobic core demonstrated improved electrical conductivity by fast electron supply. On the basis of a synergistic effect, a remarkable specific capacitance of 324 F cm−3 at 0.5 A cm−3 and greatly enhanced rate performance were achieved, i.e., a 79% retention (256 F cm−3) at 50 A cm−3. The obtained fiber-shaped supercapacitor finally displayed remarkable energy and power densities of 7.2 mW h cm−3 and 10 W cm−3, respectively. The strategy developed herein also presents a general pathway towards novel fiber electrodes for high-performance wearable devices.


Funded by

the Ministry of Science and Technology(2016YFA0203302)

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21634003,51573027,51673043,21604012,21805044,21875042)

Shanghai Science and Technology Committee(16JC1400702,17QA1400400,18QA1400700,18QA1400800)

SHMEC(2017-01-07-00-07-E00062)

Yanchang Petroleum Group. Part of the sample fabrication was performed at Fudan Nano-fabrication Laboratory.


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (2016YFA0203302), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21634003, 51573027, 51673043, 21604012, 21805044 and 21875042), Shanghai Science and Technology Committee (16JC1400702, 17QA1400400, 18QA1400700 and 18QA1400800), SHMEC (2017-01-07-00-07-E00062) and Yanchang Petroleum Group. Part of the sample fabrication was performed at Fudan Nano-Fabrication Laboratory.


Interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Fu X, Wang B and Peng H designed the experiments. Fu X, Li Z and Xu L performed the experiments with supports and suggestions from Liao M, Xie S, Sun H and Sun X. All authors contributed to the general discussion.


Author information

Xuemei Fu received her BE degree in polymer materials and engineering from Nanchang University in 2014. She is currently a PhD candidate majored in macromolecular chemistry and physics under the supervision of Prof. Huisheng Peng at Fudan University. Her research is mainly focused on the synthesis of carbon nanomaterials and their applications in flexible energy conversion and storage devices.


Bingjie Wang received his BE degree in polymer materials and engineering at Sichuan University in 2009, and his PhD in polymer chemistry and physics at Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2014. He is currently an associate professor in the Laboratory of Advanced Materials at Fudan University, China. His research focuses on the smart fibers for energy and electronics.


Huisheng Peng received his BE degree in polymer materials at Donghua University in 1999, his MSc in macromolecular chemistry and physics at Fudan University in 2003, and his PhD in chemical engineering at Tulane University in 2006. He then worked at Los Alamos National Laboratory from 2006 to 2008. He is currently a full professor in the Department of Macromolecular Science and Laboratory of Advanced Materials at Fudan University, China. His research focuses on the smart fibers for energy and electronics.


Supplement

Supplementary information

Supporting data is available in the online version of the paper.


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  • Figure 1

    Structure and composition of the amphiphilic core-sheath structured composite fiber. (a) Schematic illustration to the amphiphilic core-sheath structured CNT-Au@OCNT-PANI fiber electrode. (b) PANI modified surface of the composite fiber. (c) Cross-sectional SEM image of the fiber electrode with PANI modified OCNTs outside and Au deposited CNTs inside. (d) EDS element mapping of Au in (c). (e) SEM image showing Au distribution corresponding to the red rectangle in (c).

  • Figure 2

    The impact of hydrophilic sheath. SEM images of CNT@CNT-PANI fiber (a, b) and CNT@OCNT-PANI fiber (c, d) with 70 wt.% PANI at low and high magnifications, respectively. Raman spectra (λexc=532 nm) (e) and UV-vis spectra (f) of CNTs, OCNTs, CNT-PANI composites and OCNT-PANI composites. Nyquist plots of CNT@CNT-PANI (g) and CNT@OCNT-PANI (h) at different potentials versus SCE. The high-frequency region is highlighted in the inserted panel. (i) CV characterization of CNT@CNT-PANI and CNT@OCNT-PANI electrodes at a scan rate of 10 mV s−1.

  • Figure 3

    The effect of highly conductive hydrophobic core. Comparison of Nyquist plots of CNT@CNT-PANI and CNT@OCNT-PANI electrodes (a) and CNT@OCNT-PANI and CNT-Au@OCNT-PANI electrodes (b) at 0.6 V versus SCE. The high frequency region is highlighted in the inserted panel. (c) Dependence of impedance phase angle on frequency for CNT@OCNT-PANI and CNT-Au@OCNT-PANI electrodes at 0.6 V versus SCE. (d) CV curves of supercapacitors based on CNT@OCNT-PANI and CNT-Au@OCNT-PANI fibers at a scan rate of 200 mV s−1.

  • Figure 4

    Fiber-shaped supercapacitors based on the amphiphilic core-sheath structured composite fibers using gel electrolyte. (a) CV measurement of the supercapacitor using CNT-Au@OCNT-PANI electrodes from 10 to 1,000 mV s−1. Comparison of the dependence of current density derived from CV curves on scan rate from 10 to 5,000 mV s−1 (b) and Nyquist plots (c) of fiber-shaped supercapacitors based on CNT-Au@OCNT-PANI, CNT@OCNT-PANI and CNT-Au@CNT-PANI. (d) Specific capacitance as a function of current density from 0.5 to 50 A cm−3 for CNT-Au@OCNT-PANI, CNT@OCNT-PANI and CNT-Au@CNT-PANI. (e) Comparison of this work with other reported fiber-shaped supercapacitors based on gel electrolyte. The rate capability referred to the capacitance ratio at the maximal current density versus minimal current density.

  • Figure 5

    Application demonstration of energy textile with the fiber-shaped supercapacitors. (a) An energy textile woven from fiber-shaped supercapacitors (a length of 4 cm and diameter of 1 mm on average per supercapacitor) and cotton threads. The inset shows the flexibility of the resulting energy textile. (b) GCD curves of an energy textile in original flat state and under bending. The energy textile comprised four sets of fiber-shaped supercapacitors in series with each set including two fiber-shaped supercapacitors in parallel. (c) The textile in (a) integrated into a piece of common clothes and then connected to an LCD. (d) Once the circuit closed, the LCD showing the name of Fudan University powered by the energy textile. Note that the LCD can work stably even when the energy textile is buckled as shown in inset.

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