An all-in-one supercapacitor working at sub-zero temperatures

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  • ReceivedSep 19, 2019
  • AcceptedDec 31, 2019
  • PublishedJan 14, 2020


具有低温工作性能是超级电容器应对特殊工作环境(高海拔/高纬度)的重要保障, 也有利于其在更多领域中的应用. 本文首先制备了一种可在低温下保持柔韧性和离子传导性能的碱性凝胶电解质, 并利用其制备了一种一体式超级电容器, 其可在零点温度以下(−36°C)仍具有稳定的工作能力.

Funded by

the Basic Research Project of Science and Technology Innovation Commission of Shenzhen(JCYJ20170817110251498)

Guangdong Special Support for Science and Technology Leading Young Scientist(2016TQ03C919)

and the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21603094,21703096,11775105)


This work was financially supported by the Basic Research Project of Science and Technology Innovation Commission of Shenzhen (JCYJ20170817110251498), Guangdong Special Support for Science and Technology Leading Young Scientist (2016TQ03C919), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21603094, 21703096, and 11775105).

Interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Contributions statement

Wang Y designed and performed the experiments; Wang Y wrote the paper with support from Lu Z; all authors contributed to the general discussion.

Author information

Yanfang Wang received his BE degree from the Central South University in 2014 and MSc degree from Fudan University in 2017. Now, he is a PhD student at Southern University of Science and Technology. His research interests mainly focus on supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries.

Zhouguang Lu is currently a professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, China. He received his PhD degree from the City University of Hong Kong in 2009. He is the recipient of Fulbright Fellowship of USA Government in 2008–2009 and the Overseas High-Caliber Personnel (Level B) of Shenzhen Government in 2013. His research mainly covers the design and synthesis of nanostructures and their applications in energy storage and conversion with focus on lithium/sodium-ion and air batteries. He has authored more than 160 peer-review papers with total citations more than 5600 and H-index of 43.


Supplementary information

Experimental details and the supporting electrochemical results are available in the online version of the paper.


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  • Figure 1

    Schematic illustrating the preparation procedure of MWCNTs films and the corresponding gel-infused MWCNTs electrodes. Millipore filter refers to the porous cellulose membrane, and organosol refers to viscous PVA-KOH electrolyte dissolved in EG/H2O binary solvent.

  • Figure 2

    (a) Schematic illustration, (b) DSC curves and (c) optical images of the PVA-KOH organohydrogel.

  • Figure 3

    (a) Optic images of MWCNTs films and gel-infused MWCNTs electrodes. SEM images of the all-in-one supercapacitor from top view (b–d) and cross-sectional view (e). (f) EDS mapping images of the all-in-one supercapacitor, showing the distribution of C, K and O.

  • Figure 4

    Electrochemical performances of the all-in-one supercapacitor. (a) CV curves and (b) the corresponding capacitance retentions over several cooling cycles. (c) GCD curves at various temperatures. (d) CV curves of flexible EC in flatting and bending states. The inset shows optic images of the flexible device. (e) Capacitances at various current densities and different temperatures. (f) Cycling performance at −18°C, inset: optical images of the supercapacitor before and after 10,000 cycles.

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