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2D/2D heterostructured photocatalyst: Rational design for energy and environmental applications

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  • ReceivedDec 5, 2019
  • AcceptedJan 16, 2020
  • PublishedApr 1, 2020

Abstract

Two-dimensional/two-dimensional (2D/2D) hybrid nanomaterials have triggered extensive research in the photocatalytic field. The construction of emerging 2D/2D heterostructures can generate many intriguing advantages in exploring high-performance photocatalysts, mainly including preferable dimensionality design allowing large contact interface area, integrated merits of each 2D component and rapid charge separation by the heterojunction effect. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent progress on the fundamental aspects, general synthesis strategies (in situ growth and ex situ assembly) of 2D/2D heterostructured photocatalysts and highlight their applications in the fields of hydrogen evolution, CO2 reduction and removal of pollutants. Furthermore, the perspectives on the remaining challenges and future opportunities regarding the development of 2D/2D heterostructure photocatalysts are also presented.


Funded by

the Australia Research Council(ARC,DP,180102062)

and the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51602163)


Acknowledgment

This work was financially supported by the Australia Research Council (ARC DP 180102062), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51602163).


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Zhang X proposed the topic and outline of the manuscript; Hou H collected the related information and drafted the manuscript; Zeng X gave some valuable comments.


Author information

Huilin Hou received his PhD degree from Taiyuan University of Technology in 2015. He works in Ningbo University of Technology (NBUT), and is currently an associate professor of the Institute of Materials in NBUT. From 2018 to 2019, he worked at Monash University as a visiting scholar. His research interest focuses on solar photocatalysis.


Xiangkang Zeng obtained his PhD degree in 2017 at Monash University, Australia, under the supervision of Prof. Xiwang Zhang. He then moved to the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology for one-year postdoctoral work. In November 2018, he came back to Australia and is currently a postdoctoral research fellow at Prof. Xiwang Zhang’s group. His current research focuses on the development of 2D photocatalysts.


Xiwang Zhang is a professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Monash University, and the director of ARC Research Hub for Energy-efficient Separation. His research interests focus on membrane and advanced oxidation technologies for various applications. Prof. Zhang was the receipt of the prestigious Australian Research Fellowship and Larkins Fellowship.


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  • Figure 1

    Schematic illustration of 2D based heterostructures in regard to the dimensionality difference.

  • Figure 2

    Schematic diagram for the scope of this review.

  • Figure 3

    (a) Schematic illustrations of bonded heterostructure interface with a lattice-matched interface. (b) Bonding free atomic structure at a vdW interface. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [3]. Copyright 2019, Nature.

  • Figure 4

    (a) Schematic illustration of the synthetic process for 2D/2D Ti3C2/Bi2WO6 heterojunction. DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [28]. Copyright 2018, Wiley-VCH. (b) Schematic illustration of the synthetic process for 2D/2D C3N4/Bi20TiO32 heterojunction. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [29]. Copyright 2015, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 5

    (a, b) Schematic illustration of the synthetic process (a) and representative HRTEM image (b) of 2D/2D g-C3N4/MnO2 heterojunction. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [30]. Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society. (c, d) Schematic illustration of the synthetic process (c) and representative TEM image (d) of 2D/2D Bi4Ti3O12/I-BiOCl heterojunction. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [31]. Copyright 2017, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 6

    (a) Schematic illustration of the synthetic process of 2D/2D CdS/MoS2 heterojunction. DETA: diethylenetriamine. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [86]. Copyright 2017, Elsevier. (b) TEM image of metal-FP/graphitic CNS 2D/2D heterojunction. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [87]. Copyright 2018, Wiley-VCH. (c) Schematic illustration of the synthetic process of 2D/2D Bi4NbO8Cl/g-C3N4 heterojunction. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [88]. Copyright 2019, Elsevier.

  • Figure 7

    (a–c) Schematic illustration of the synthetic process (a), TEM image (b) and HRTEM image (c) of the 2D/2D WO3/ZnIn2S4 heterojunction. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [90]. Copyright 2019, Royal Society of Chemistry. (d) TEM image of the 2D/2D Bi2WO6/TiO2 heterojunction. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [91]. Copyright 2017, Wiley-VCH. (e) TEM image of 2D/2D Fe2O3/g-C3N4 composites. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [92]. Copyright 2018, Wiley-VCH.

  • Figure 8

    (a) Schematic illustration of the synthetic process of 2D/2D g-C3N4/K+Ca2Nb3O10 heterojunction. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [93]. Copyright 2017, Elsevier. (b, c) TEM and HRTEM images of 2D/2D WO3/K+Ca2Nb3O10 heterojunction. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [94]. Copyright 2017, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 9

    Schematic diagrams of the five types of heterojunctions.

  • Figure 10

    (a) Schematic diagram for the photocatalytic H2 evolution using BP/CN photocatalyst. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [108]. Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society. (b) Schematic diagram for the photocatalytic H2 evolution using 2D/2D g-C3N4/ZnIn2S4 photocatalyst. NHE: normal hydrogen electrode. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [53]. Copyright 2018, Elsevier. (c) Schematic diagram for the photocatalytic H2 evolution using La2Ti2O7/In2S3 photocatalyst. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [144]. Copyright 2019, Elsevier.

  • Figure 11

    (a) Z-scheme mechanism in α-Fe2O3/g-C3N4 hybrids. (b) Photocatalytic H2 evolution over α-Fe2O3/g-C3N4 hybrids. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [150]. Copyright 2017, Wiley-VCH. (c) Schematic diagrams of mechanisms for photocatalytic H2 evolution over WO3/ZnIn2S4 samples. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [90]. Copyright 2019, Royal Society of Chemistry. (d) Schematic of the photocatalytic water splitting over the 2D/2D Cu2S/Zn0.67Cd0.33S. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [35]. Copyright 2019, Royal Society of Chemistry. (e) Z-scheme mechanism in BP/Bi2WO6 hybrids. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [153]. Copyright 2019, Wiley-VCH.

  • Figure 12

    (a) Electrostatic potentials of (a) WO3 (001) surface and (b) g-C3N4 (001) surface. (c–e) S-scheme charge transfer mechanism between WO3 and g-C3N4. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [116]. Copyright 2019, Elsevier.

  • Figure 13

    Schematic diagrams of the composite photocatalysts and the corresponding charge transfer route, and comparison of the H2 production rates over the composite photocatalysts with their respective counterparts. (a, b) 2D/2D BP/MoS2. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [82]. Copyright 2019, Elsevier. (c, d) 2D/2D Ti3C2/g-C3N4. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [119]. Copyright 2019, Elsevier. (e, f) 2D/2D/2D Ti3C2@TiO2@MoS2. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [75]. Copyright 2019, Elsevier.

  • Figure 14

    (a, b) Schematic diagrams of high (a) and low (b) electron density-dependent CH4 selectivity in SiC/rGO heterojunctions. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [33]. Copyright 2018, Wiley-VCH. (c) Energy level structure diagram of Bi2WO6 and Ti3C2, as well as the photoinduced electron transfer process. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [28]. Copyright 2018, Wiley-VCH.

  • Figure 15

    (a) Comparison of the photocatalytic CO, CH4, H2, and O2 production rates over the Bi2WO6/rGO/g-C3N4 samples as well as other synthesized photocatalysts. (b) Schematic illustration of the proposed mechanism for CO2 photoreduction in the Bi2WO6/rGO/g-C3N4 sample. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [50]. Copyright 2018, Elsevier. (c) Estimated relative band positions and schematic diagram of charge transfer and separation at the BWO-OV/BOI composite. (d) Schematic illustration for the proposed mechanism of photocatalytic CO2 reduction over the BWO-OV/BOI composite. (e) Total yield of CH4 production over the BWO-OV/BOI composite and other as-developed samples. (f) Photostability tests of BWO-OV/BOI composite. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [125]. Copyright 2019, Elsevier.

  • Figure 16

    (a) The proposed mechanism for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity over Cu2WS4/YC/g-C3N4 heterojunction. (b) TC degradation dynamics curves over Cu2WS4/YC/g-C3N4 and other counterparts. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [195]. Copyright 2019, Elsevier. (c) Photocatalytic mechanism scheme of g-C3N4/Bi2WO6 2D/2D heterojunction. (d) Photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen by using g-C3N4/Bi2WO6 and other samples. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [196]. Copyright 2017, Elsevier.

  • Figure 17

    (a) TEM image of Au NPs decorated 2D/2D Bi2WO6-TiO2 heterostructure. (b) The proposed mechanism for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity over Au NPs decorated 2D/2D Bi2WO6-TiO2 heterostructure. SPR: surface plasmon resonance. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [91]. Copyright 2017, Wiley-VCH. (c) Sketch of the 2D/2D In2S3/Bi2O2CO3 S-scheme heterojunction. (d) Photocatalytic degradation rates over the In2S3/Bi2O2CO3 and other fabricated samples. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [156]. Copyright 2020, Elsevier.

  • Table 1   growth of 2D/2D heterostructures through wet chemical method

    2D/2D heterojunction

    Pre-synthesized 2D component/method

    Growth method for the second 2D component

    References

    g-C3N4-GO/MoS2

    g-C3N4-GO/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [36]

    TiO2/GO

    GO/Modified Hummer’s method

    Solvothermal

    [37]

    C3N4/Bi20TiO32

    C3N4/Ultrasonic exfoliation

    Hydrothermal + Calcination

    [26]

    CdS/rGO

    GO/Modified Hummer’s method

    Hydrothermal + Hydrazine hydrate reduction

    [38]

    GO/Mesoporous TiO2

    GO/Modified Hummer’s method

    Hydrothermal + Calcination

    [39]

    MoS2/TiO2

    TiO2/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [40]

    BiOIO3/BiOI

    BiOIO3/hydrothermal

    Chemical precipitation method

    [41]

    P-C3N4/ZnIn2S4

    P-C3N4/Frozen expansion and post-thermal exfoliation

    Hydrothermal

    [42]

    TiO2/Bi2WO6

    TiO2/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [43]

    MnO2/rGO

    rGO/Modified Hummers’ method + Calcination

    Hydrothermal

    [44]

    BiOBr/La2Ti2O7

    La2Ti2O7/Hydrothermal

    Chemical precipitation

    [45]

    BiOCl/La2Ti2O7

    La2Ti2O7/Hydrothermal

    Chemical precipitation

    [46]

    BiOI/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/Ultrasonic exfoliation

    Chemical precipitation

    [47]

    MnO2/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/Thermal exfoliation

    Redox reaction

    [48]

    MnO2/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/Nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide exfoliation

    Redox reaction

    [30]

    Bi4Ti3O12/I-BiOCl

    Bi4Ti3O12/Molten salt synthesis

    Chemical transformation

    [31]

    TiO2/SnS2

    TiO2/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [49]

    Bi2WO6/RGO/g-C3N4

    rGO/g-C3N4/heat-etchin + Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [50]

    Ti3C2/Bi2WO6

    Ti3C2/Ultrasonic exfoliation

    Hydrothermal

    [28]

    N-ZnO-g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/Ultrasonic exfoliation

    Hydrothermal

    [51]

    N-ZnO-g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/Ultrasonic exfoliation

    Hydrothermal

    [52]

    g-C3N4/ZnIn2S4

    g-C3N4/Thermal exfoliation

    Surfactant-assisted solvothermal

    [53]

    SnNb2O6/CoFe-LDH

    SnNb2O6/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [54]

    BiOI/BiVO4

    BiOI/Hydrolysis

    Anion-exchange

    [55]

    Cu/TiO2@Ti3C2Tx

    Ti3C2Tx/Etching

    Hydrothermal

    [56]

    g-C3N4/NiAl-LDH

    g-C3N4/Ultrasonic exfoliation

    Hydrothermal

    [57]

    BiOCl/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/Ultrasonic exfoliation

    Hydrothermal

    [58]

    Zn3In2S6/F-g-C3N4

    F-g-C3N4/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [59]

    CoMoS2/rGO/C3N4

    g-C3N4/Thermal exfoliationrGO/Hummer’s method and reduction

    Solvothermal

    [60]

    MoS2/CdS

    CdS/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [61]

    g-C3N4/rGO/MoS2

    g-C3N4-rGO/Pyrolysis

    Hydrothermal

    [62]

    CuInS2/SnS2

    SnS2/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [63]

    ZnCr-CLDH/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/Thermal exfoliation

    Chemical precipitation

    [64]

    g-C3N4/Bi12O17Cl2

    g-C3N4/Thermal exfoliation

    Chemical precipitation

    [65]

    MnIn2S4/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/Frozen expansion and post-thermal exfoliation

    Hydrothermal

    [66]

    CuInS4/ZnIn2S4

    ZnIn2S4/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [67]

    CuInS4/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/Thermal exfoliation

    Hydrothermal

    [68]

    C3N4/SnS2

    g-C3N4/Ultrasonic exfoliation

    Hydrothermal

    [69]

    MoS2/SnNb2O6

    SnNb2O6/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [70]

    SnNb2O6/Bi2WO6

    SnNb2O6/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [71]

    ZnIn2S4/BiOCl

    ZnIn2S4/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [72]

    P-La2Ti2O7/Bi2WO6

    P-La2Ti2O7/Hydrothermal + Calcination

    Solvothermal

    [73]

    MoS2/PbS

    MoS2/Liquid-phase exfoliation

    Solvothermal

    [74]

    Ti3C2@TiO2@MoS2

    Ti3C2/HF Etching Ti3C2/TiO2/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [75]

    BiOCl/K+Ca2Nb3O10

    K+Ca2Nb3O10/Solid-phase reaction

    Hydrothermal

    [76]

    CdIn2S4/N-rGO

    N-rGO/Ultrasonic treatment

    Hydrothermal

    [77]

    SnS2/TiO2

    TiO2/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [78]

    WS2/TiO2

    TiO2/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [79]

    GO/Bi2WO6

    GO/Hummer’s method and reduction

    Hydrothermal

    [80]

    MoS2/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/Liquid exfoliation

    Solvothermal

    [81]

    Black phosphorus (BP)/MoS2

    BP/Ultrasonic exfoliation

    Solvothermal

    [82]

    SnS2/MoS2

    SnS2/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [83]

    ZnxCd1−xIn2S4/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/Thermal exfoliation

    Hydrothermal

    [84]

    CdS/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/Liquid exfoliation

    Hydrothermal

    [85]

  • Table 2   Summary of the methods to assembly of 2D/2D heterojunction

    2D/2D heterojunction

    Component A/Method

    Component B/Method

    Assembly methods

    References

    SnNb2O6/Graphene

    SnNb2O6/(Hydrothermal + Calcination + Positively-charged functionalization)

    Graphene/(Modified Hummers method + BPEI refluxing)

    Electrostatic attraction

    [95]

    rGO/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Ultrasonic exfoliation + Proton-functionalized)

    rGO/(Modified Hummers method + Ultrasonic exfoliation + NaBH4 reduction)

    Electrostatic attraction

    [96]

    SnS2/g-C3N4

    SnS2/Hydrothermal

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Ultrasonic exfoliation)

    Ultrasonic adsorption + Hydrothermal

    [97]

    C3N4/rGO

    C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Ultrasonic exfoliation + Proton-functionalized)

    rGO/Modified Hummers method

    Photo-assisted electrostatic attraction

    [98]

    Bi2O2CO3/g-C3N4

    Bi2O2CO3/Hydrothermal

    g-C3N4/Thermal polymerization

    Calcination

    [99]

    MoS2/g-C3N4

    MoS2/Hydrothermal + Ultrasonicexfoliation

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Ultrasonic exfoliation)

    Impregnation andcalcination method

    [100]

    GL-MoS2/C3N4

    MoS2/Hydrothermal

    C3N4/Thermal polymerization

    Hydrothermal

    [101]

    SnNb2O6/g-C3N4

    SnNb2O6/Hydrothermal

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + HNO3 exfoliation)

    Hydrothermal

    [102]

    C3N4/GO

    C3N4/Thermal polymerization

    GO/Modified Hummers method

    Ultrasonic adsorption + Freeze drying

    [103]

    GO/g-C3N4

    GO/Modified Hummers method

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Ultrasonic exfoliation + Proton-functionalized)

    Photo-assisted electrostatic attraction

    [104]

    Bi2WO6/TiO2

    TiO2/(Hydrothermal + Positively-charged functionalization)

    Bi2WO6/(Hydrothermal +A-TNS functionalization)

    Electrostatic attraction

    [91]

    g-C3N4/K+Ca2Nb3O10

    K+Ca2Nb3O10/TBA+OH ultrasonicexfoliation

    g-C3N4/Thermal polymerization

    Hydrothermal

    [93]

    WO3/K+Ca2Nb3O10

    WO3/Hydrothermal

    K+Ca2Nb3O10/TBAOH ultrasonicexfoliation

    Hydrothermal

    [94]

    N-doped La2Ti2O7/g-C3N4

    N-doped La2Ti2O7/Hydrothermal

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Thermal exfoliation)

    Ultrasonic adsorption

    [105]

    CdS/MoO2

    CdS/Solvothermal

    MoO2/Hydrothermal

    Ultrasonic adsorption

    [86]

    WO3/SnNb2O6

    WO3/Hydrothermal

    SnNb2O6/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [106]

    BiOI/CeO2

    CeO2/Refluxed method

    BiOI/Precipitation

    Ultrasonic adsorption

    [107]

    BP/g-C3N4

    BP/NMP solvent exfoliation

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Thermal exfoliation)

    Ultrasonic adsorption

    [108]

    BiOIO3/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Ultrasonic exfoliation)

    BiOIO3 (Hydrothermal + Positively-charged functionalization)

    Electrostatic attraction

    [109]

    rGO/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Ultrasonic exfoliation + Proton-functionalized)

    GO/Modified Hummers method

    Electrostatic attraction

    [110]

    Porous-g-C3N4/Bi2WO6

    Porous-g-C3N4/Thermal polymerization

    Bi2WO6/Hydrothermal

    Ultrasonic adsorption

    [111]

    Ni2P/ZnIn2S4

    ZnIn2S4/Hydrothermal + Ultrasonic exfoliation

    Ni2P/Hydrothermal + Calcination

    Ultrasonic adsorption

    [112]

    CdS/WS2

    CdS/Hydrothermal

    WS2/NMP ultrasonic exfoliation

    Stirring adsorption

    [113]

    MoO2/GL-C3N4

    MoO2/Interfacial self-assembly and thermal reduction

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Thermal exfoliation)

    Hydrothermal

    [114]

    Phosphorene/g-C3N4

    Phosphorene/Ultrasonic exfoliation

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Thermal exfoliation)

    Mechanically ground

    [87]

    Fe2O3/g-C3N4

    Fe2O3/Hydrothermal

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Ultrasonic exfoliation + Proton-functionalized)

    Electrostatic attraction

    [92]

    g-C3N4/MoS2

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Thermal exfoliation)

    MoS2/Ultrasonic exfoliation

    Ultrasonic adsorption

    [115]

    WO3/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Ultrasonic exfoliation + Positively-chargedfunctionalization)

    WO3/BSA electrostatic-assistedultrasonic exfoliation

    Electrostatic attraction

    [116]

    ZnIn2S4/MoS2

    ZnIn2S4/(Hydrothermal + Cryodesiccation)

    MoS2/(Hydrothermal +Cryodesiccation)

    Electrostatic attraction

    [117]

    Ti3C2 MXene/O-dopedg-C3N4

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization +Ultrasonic exfoliation + Calcination +Proton-functionalized)

    Ti3C2/(HF etching + Ultrasonicexfoliation)

    Electrostatic attraction

    [118]

    Ti3C2/g-C3N4

    Ti3C2/Pyroreaction + HF etching

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Thermal exfoliation + Calcination + Proton-functionalized)

    Electrostatic attraction

    [119]

    BiVO4/g-C3N4

    BiVO4/Hydrothermal

    g-C3N4/Thermal polymerization

    Ultrasonic adsorption

    [120]

    WO3/ZnIn2S4

    WO3/(Hydrothermal + Calcination +Positively-charged functionalization)

    ZnIn2S4/(Fefluxing + Ultrasonicexfoliation)

    Electrostatic attraction

    [90]

    ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization +Ultrasonic exfoliation + Calcination +Proton-functionalized)

    ZnIn2S4/(Fefluxing + Ultrasonicexfoliation)

    Electrostatic attraction

    [121]

    ZnV2O6/g-C3N4

    ZnV2O6/(Hydrothermal + Calcination)

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Proton-functionalized)

    Electrostatic attraction

    [122]

    SnS2/g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Thermal exfoliation)

    SnS2/Hydrothermal

    Hydrothermal

    [123]

    BP/g-C3N4

    BP/Solvent exfoliation

    g-C3N4/(Thermal polymerization + Thermal exfoliation)

    Ultrasonic adsorption

    [124]

    Bi4Ti3O12/Ni(OH)2

    Bi4Ti3O12/Molten salt method

    Ni(OH)2/Sedimentation

    Solid phase grinding

    [89]

    Bi4NbO8Cl/g-C3N4

    Bi4NbO8Cl/Molten salt method

    g-C3N4/Thermal polymerization

    Solid phase grinding + Calcination

    [88]

    Bi2WO6/BiOI

    Bi2WO6/Hydrothermal

    BiOI/Sedimentation

    Ultrasonic adsorption

    [125]

  • Table 3   Summary of the photocatalytic performances by using 2D/2D heterojunction photocatalysts

    Photocatalytic hydrogen generation

    Photocatalysts

    Amount of photocatalysts/Reaction solution volume

    Sacrificial agent

    Light source

    Yields of product (μmol h−1 g−1)

    Apparent quantum yield (AQY)

    References

    MoS2/g-C3N4

    20 mg/100 mL

    Lactic acid

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    1030

    2.1% at 420 nm

    [203]

    TiO2/MoS2

    100 mg/100 mL

    Methanol

    300 W Xe

    2145

    6.4% at 360 nm

    [40]

    CdS-NSs/rGO-WO3

    -/30 mL

    EtOH

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    119.4

    10.7% at 420 nm

    [152]

    g-C3N4/N-La2Ti2O7

    5 mg/5 mL

    Methanol

    500 W Xe

    430

    2.1% at 420 nm

    [105]

    TiO2/g-C3N4

    10 mg/30 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe

    18,200

    5.3% at 380 nm

    [141]

    ZnO-MoS2/rGO

    5 mg/-

    Na2S/Na2SO3

    Natural

    sunlight irradiation

    28,616

    -

    [204]

    CdS/MoS2

    50 mg/80 mL

    Na2S/Na2SO3

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    8720

    -

    [86]

    Bi4Ti3O12/I-BiOCl

    50 mg/80 mL

    Methanol

    350 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    91.7

    -

    [31]

    α-Fe2O3/g-C3N4

    10 mg/100 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    >30,000

    44.35% at 420 nm

    [150]

    CPFA/g-C3N4

    100 mg/300 mL

    Triethanol amine

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    584.7

    -

    [205]

    ZnIn2S4/MoSe2

    5 mg/10 mL

    Lactic acid

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    6454

    -

    [206]

    Nickel boron oxide/Graphene

    40 mg/100 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    ~5000

    -

    [207]

    MoS2/Cu-ZnIn2S4

    50 mg/250 mL

    Ascorbic acid

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    5463

    13.6% at 420 nm

    [160]

    MoS2/rGO

    40 mg/250 mL

    TEOA and [ZnTMPyP]4+

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    2560

    15.2% at 420 nm

    [208]

    BP/g-C3N4

    1.5 mg/40 mL

    Methanol

    320 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    427

    -

    [108]

    N-ZnO/g-C3N4

    5 mg/50 mL

    Na2S/Na2SO3

    320 W Xe

    18,836

    -

    [52]

    g-C3N4/MoS2

    50 mg/80 mL

    Methanol

    350 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    191.2

    -

    [209]

    Ni2P/ZnIn2S4

    50 mg/100 mL

    Lactic acid

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    2066

    7.7% at 420 nm

    [112]

    g-C3N4/ZnIn2S4

    50 mg/60 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    2780

    7.05% at 420 nm

    [53]

    Cuy/TiO2@Ti3C2Tx

    20 mg/150 mL

    Methanol

    300 W Xe

    860

    -

    [56]

    Phosphorene/g-C3N4

    20 mg/100 mL

    Lactic acid

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    571

    1.2% at 420 nm

    [87]

    g-C3N4/MgFe

    30 mg/100 mL

    Tricthanolamine

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    1260

    6.9% at 420 nm

    [210]

    g-C3N4/MoS2

    3 mg/5 mL

    Lactic acid

    350 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    660

    5.67% at 400 nm

    [115]

    g-C3N4/rGO

    100 mg/100 mL

    Tricthanolamine

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    715

    -

    [211]

    CoP/g-C3N4

    50 mg/100 mL

    Tricthanolamine

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    ~750

    4.3% at 420 nm

    [212]

    Fe2O3/g-C3N4

    50 mg/80 mL

    TEOA

    350 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    398.0

    -

    [92]

    CoMoS2/rGO/C3N4

    100 mg/-

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    684

    -

    [60]

    CdS-MoS2/rGO-E

    20 mg/80 mL

    Lactic acid

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    36,700

    30.5% at 420 nm

    [213]

    MoS2/CdS

    50 mg/250 mL

    Na2S/Na2SO3

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    26,320

    46.65% at 450 nm

    [61]

    g-C3N4/Graphene/MoS2

    50 mg/250 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    317

    3.4% at 420 nm

    [62]

    CdS/WS2

    3 mg/5 mL

    Lactic acid

    350 W Xe

    14,100

    70% at 460 nm

    [113]

    O-g-C3N4/TiO2

    50 mg/50 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    587.1

    -

    [142]

    Phosphorus/Bismuthvanadate

    5 mg/8 mL

    -

    320 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    160

    0.89% at 420 nm

    [214]

    CdS/WS2/g-C3N4

    10 mg/20 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    1174.5

    -

    [215]

    WO3/g-C3N4

    50 mg/80 mL

    Lactic acid

    350 W Xe

    982

    -

    [116]

    CuInS2/ZnIn2S4

    50 mg/100 mL

    Na2S/Na2SO3

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    3430.2

    12.4% at 420 nm

    [67]

    Phosphorus/MonolayerBi2WO6

    20 mg/100 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe

    21042

    -

    [153]

    La2Ti2O7/In2S3

    60 mg/100 mL

    Na2S/Na2SO3

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    158.89

    -

    [144]

    ZnIn2S4/MoS2

    -/40 mL

    Lactic acid

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    4974

    -

    [117]

    MoS2/SnNb2O6

    50 mg/50 mL

    Methanol

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    258

    -

    [70]

    C3N4/MoS2

    50 mg/100 mL

    Methyl alcohol

    300 W Xe

    385.04

    -

    [216]

    Ti3C2 MXene/MoS2

    10 mg/-

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (AM 1.5)

    6425.297

    4.61% at 420 nm

    [75]

    g-C3N4/UMOFNs

    15 mg/30 mL

    Actic acid

    500 W Xe

    1909.02

    2.34% at 405 nm

    [217]

    Ti3C2 MXene/O-doped g-C3N4

    10 mg/80 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe

    25,124

    6.53% at 420 nm

    [118]

    Pt/g-C3N4/WO3

    50 mg/50 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    862

    17.5% at 400 nm

    [151]

    Cu2S/Zn0.67Cd0.33S

    30 mg/-

    Na2S/Na2SO3

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    152,700

    18.15% at 420 nm

    [35]

    Ti3C2/g-C3N4

    30 mg/40 mL

    TEOA

    200 W Hg

    72.3

    -

    [119]

    SnS2/TiO2

    20 mg/40 mL

    Methanol

    300 W Xe

    652.4

    -

    [78]

    WO3/ZnIn2S4

    20 mg/100 mL

    Na2S/Na2SO3

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    2202.9

    -

    [80]

    Ba5Nb4O15/g-C3N4

    50 mg/100 mL

    Oxalic acid

    420 nm LEDs

    26,700

    6.1% at 420 nm

    [143]

    ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4

    10 mg/120 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    8601.16

    0.92% at 400 nm

    [121]

    MoS2/g-C3N4

    50 mg/250 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    1155

    6.8% at 420 nm

    [81]

    BP/MoS2

    10 mg/250 mL

    Na2S/Na2SO3

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    1286

    1.2% at 420 nm

    [82]

    BP/g-C3N4

    10 mg/100 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    384.17

    -

    [218]

    BP/g-C3N4

    20 mg/100 mL

    BPA

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    259.04

    -

    [124]

    ZnxCd1−xIn2S4/g-C3N4

    50 mg/50 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    170.3

    8.5% at 420 nm

    [84]

    CdS/CoP

    20 mg/50 mL

    Ethanol

    300 W Xe

    56,300

    -

    [219]

    g-C3N4/Co@NC

    10 mg/100 mL

    TEOA

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    1567

    10.82 % at 400 nm

    [220]

    Co3(PO4)2/g-C3N4

    50 mg/100 mL

    -

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    375.6

    1.32% at 420 nm

    [221]

    FeSe2/g-C3N4

    30 mg/-

    Na2S/Na2SO3

    300 W Xe

    1655.6

    -

    [222]

    CdS/Cu7S4

    5 mg/80 mL

    Na2S/Na2SO3

    300 W Xe

    278,000

    14.7 % at 420 nm

    [140]

    Photocatalytic CO2 reduction

    Photocatalysts

    Amount ofphotocatalysts

    Light source

    Main product

    Yields of product (μmol h−1 g−1)

    References

    rGO/g-C3N4

    100 mg

    15 W energy-saving daylight

    CH4

    13.93

    [96]

    BiOI/g-C3N4

    100 mg

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    CO

    3.446

    [47]

    MnO2/g-C3N4

    50 mg

    300 W Xe

    CO

    2.04

    [48]

    ZnV2O6/rGO

    100 mg

    35 W HID Xe

    CH3OH

    515.397

    [223]

    Ti3C2/Bi2WO6

    100 mg

    simulated solar irradiation

    CH4

    1.78

    [28]

    CH3OH

    0.44

     

    SiC/rGO

    30 mg

    300 W Xe

    CH4

    14.5425

    [33]

    α-Fe2O3/g-C3N4

    25 mg

    300 W Xe

    CO

    6.85

    [224]

    Bi2WO6/rGO/g-C3N4

    50 mg

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    CH4

    2.51

    [50]

     

    CO

    15.96

    g-C3N4/NiAl-LDH

    50 mg

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    CO

    8.2

    [57]

    ZnV2O6/g-C3N4

    100 mg

    35 W HID Xe

    CH3OH

    776

    [122]

    Bi2WO6/BiOI

    -

    500 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    CH4

    2.29

    [125]

    Bi4NbO8Cl/g-C3N4

    50 mg

    300 W Xe

    CO

    2.26

    [88]

    MOF/rGO

    40 mg

    100 W LED lamp

    CO

    3.8×104

    [225]

    Removal of pollutions

    Photocatalysts

    Amount of photocatalysts/Reaction solution volume

    Target

    Light source

    Reaction time/Degradation efficiency

    Rate constant k (min−1)

    References

    g-C3N4/rGO

    8.0 mg/5 mL

    RhB

    1000 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    75 min/100%

    0.063

    [198]

    4-Nitrophenol

    150 min/52%

    -

     

    TiO2/Graphene

    40 mg/60 mL

    RhB

    500 W Hg

    60 min/95%

    0.046

    [37]

    2,4-DCP

    60 min/95%

     

    α-Fe2O3/Graphene

    30 mg/-

    RhB

    350 W Xe

    20 min/98%

    0.19489

    [226]

    SnNb2O6/Graphene

    30 mg/40 mL

    RhB

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    60 min/98%

    0.0616

    [95]

    rGO/GdS

    10 mg/30 mL

    MB

    λ>420 nm

    60 min/98%

    0.068

    [38]

    C3N4/Bi20TiO32

    100 mg/100 mL

    RhB

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    20 min/98%

    -

    [29]

    Graphene/TiO2

    10 mg/30 mL

    MB

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    3 h/~80%

    0.00463

    [39]

    BiOIO3/BiOI

    -

    NO

    λ>420 nm

    30 min/41.3%

    -

    [41]

    SnS2/g-C3N4

    10 mg/100 mL

    RhB

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    20 min/99.8%

    0.2

    [97]

    BiOBr/La2Ti2O7

    40 mg/100 mL

    RhB

    300 W Xe

    -

    0.092

    [45]

    BiOCl/La2Ti2O7

    40 mg/100 mL

    RhB

    300 W Hg

    -

    0.19

    [46]

    CNX-NSs/rGO

    5 mg/10 mL

    MB

    300 W Xe

    40 min/88%

    -

    [98]

    P-C3N4/ZnIn2S4

    30 mg/30 mL

    4-Nitroaniline

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    90 min/99.4%

    -

    [42]

    Bi2O2CO3/g-C3N4

    50 mg/50 mL

    RhB

    500 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    5 h/74%

    -

    [99]

    MoS2/g-C3N4

    40 mg/50 mL

    RhB

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    20 min/96%

    0.152

    [100]

    g-C3N4/Bi4O5I2

    500 mg/50 mL

    RhB

    λ>420 nm

    40 min/99%

    0.06

    [227]

    C3N4/Graphene

    20 mg/-

    MO

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    5 h/73%

    -

    [103]

    MoS2/g-C3N4

    25 mg/50 mL

    MO

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    3 h/74.4%

    0.461

    [101]

    SnNb2O6/g-C3N4

    20 mg/80 mL

    MB

    500 W W (λ>420 nm)

    60 min/55%

    -

    [102]

    g-C3N4/N-La2Ti2O7

    10 mg/10 mL

    MO

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    3 h/44%

    -

    [105]

    g-C3N4/MgIn2S4

    15 mg/30 mL

    MO

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    70%

    -

    [228]

    g-C3N4/TiO2

    10 mg/30 mL

    MO

    300 W Xe

    15 min/98%

    0.189

    [141]

    g-C3N4/Bi4O5Br2

    10 mg/100 mL

    RhB

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    75 min/91%

    -

    [229]

    K+Ca2Nb3O10/g-C3N4

    40 mg/40 mL

    TC

    500 W W (λ>420 nm)

    90 min/80%

    0.0137

    [93]

    WO3/K+Ca2Nb3O10

    40 mg/40 mL

    TC

    250 W Xe

    120 min/85.8%

    0.0151

    [94]

    WO3/SnNb2O6

    40 mg/40 mL

    RhB

    500 W W

    180 min/93.4%

    0.015

    [106]

    Bi4Ti3O12/I-BiOCl

    50 mg/80 mL

    MB

    350 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    180 min/90%

    0.013

    [31]

    CeO2/BiOCl

    20 mg/20 mL

    RhB

    direct sunlight

    60 min/89%

    -

    [107]

    g-C3N4/Bi2WO6

    10 mg/50 mL

    Ibuprofen

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    60 min/96.1%

    0.052

    [196]

    g-C3N4/MnO2

    50 mg/50 mL

    Phenol

    300 W Xe

    180 min/73.6%

    0.033

    [30]

    Bi2S3-BiOCl

    10 mg/50 mL

    X-3B

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    30 min/74.6%

    0.096

    [201]

    Bi2WO6/TiO2

    10 mg/40 mL

    4-Nitroaniline

    300 W Xe

    16 min/100%

    -

    [91]

    TiO2/SnS2

    20 mg/100 mL

    MB

    250 W Hg

    60 min/44%

    -

    [49]

    ZnO/V2O5

    10 mg/25 mL

    MB

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    400 min/90%

    0.0052

    [230]

    C3N4-CdS

    500 mg/1000 mL

    MO

    300 W Xe

    210 min/97%

    -

    [231]

    Bi3O4Cl/g-C3N4

    50 mg/100 mL

    TC

    250 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    60 min/76%

    0.0205

    [197]

    BiOIO3/g-C3N4

    -/50 mL

    2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

    500 W Xe

    2.5 h/92%

    0.016

    [109]

    Bi2WO6/g-C3N4

    50 mg/100 mL

    RhB

    500 W W (λ>420 nm)

    -

    0.043

    [111]

    MoO2/g-C3N4

    50 mg/50 mL

    RhB

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    120 min/97.5%

    -

    [114]

    N-ZnO/g-C3N4

    20 mg/50 mL

    RhB

    visible light irradiation

    180 min/97 %

    0.0089

    [51]

    KTiNbO5/g-C3N4

    100 mg/-

    RhB

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    80 min/89.9 %

    -

    [232]

    ZnO-ZnCr2O4/g-C3N4-C(N)

    50 mg/80 mL

    Congo red

    500 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    60 min/70 %

    0.0387

    [64]

    SnNb2O6/CoFe-LDH

    50 mg/50 mL

    MO

    500 W Xe

    60 min/83.3%

    -

    [54]

    BiOI/BiVO4

    30 mg/50 mL

    RhB

    Sunlamp (λ>400 nm)

    75 min/97%

    0.0467

    [55]

    g-C3N4/Bi12O17Cl2

    30 mg/50 mL

    RhB

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    60 min/90%

    0.353

    [65]

    BiOCl/g-C3N4

    50 mg/100 mL

    4-Chlorophenol

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    120 min/95%

    0.025

    [58]

    WC/WO3

    20 mg/20 mL

    RhB

    500 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    -/89%

    -

    [202]

    g-C3N4/rGO

    -/20 mL

    MO

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    180 min/97%

    -

    [199]

    Zn3In2S6/F-C3N4

    40 mg/100 mL

    MO

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    60 min/99%

    0.07329

    [59]

    GO/g-C3N4

    20 mg/50 mL

    RhB

    500 W Xe

    -

    0.0514

    [110]

    MoSe2/Bi2WO6

    100 mg/-

    Toluene

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    180 min/80%

    -

    [233]

    FeOCl/GO

    50 mg/100 mL

    RhB

    sunlight

    10 min/100%

    0.32

    [234]

    SnS2/CuInS2

    30 mg/100 mL

    MO

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    60 min/99%

    -

    [63]

    BP/g-C3N4

    20 mg/80 mL

    RhB

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    30 min/97%

    0.288

    [200]

    Cu2WS4/g-C3N4

    50 mg/100 mL

    Cr(VI)

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    100 min/98.3%

    0.04076

    [193]

    TC

    120 min/68.1%

    -

    Ag-WO3/g-C3N4

    100 mg/300 mL

    RhB

    500 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    40 min/96.2%

    0.053

    [235]

    MnIn2S4/g-C3N4

    30 mg/30 mL

    TC

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    120 min/100%

    -

    [66]

    CuInS2/g-C3N4

    50 mg/100 mL

    TC

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    60 min/83.7%

    0.02583

    [68]

    C3N4/SnS2

    30 mg/30 mL

    MB

    LED light (λ=410 nm)

    30 min/98.7%

    0.08258

    [69]

    SnNb2O6/Bi2WO6

    50 mg/-

    Quinolone antibiotic

    Norfloxacin (NOR)

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    60 min/~90%

    0.0406

    [71]

    CQDs-ZnIn2S4/BiOCl

    50 mg/100 mL

    Antibiotics

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    120 min/83.7%

    0.014

    [72]

    CoAl-LDH/g-C3N4/rGO

    50 mg/200 mL

    Congo red

    300 W halogen

    30 min/99%

    -

    [236]

     

    TC

    60 min/99%

    -

    Carbon dots-BiVO4/Bi3TaO7

    10 mg/30 mL

    TC

    500 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    120 min/85.3%

    -

    [237]

    MoS2/PbS

    25 mg/250 mL

    MB

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    48 min/90%

    0.0431

    [74]

    Bi@Bi5O7I/rGO

    30 mg/-

    Levofloxacin

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    60 min/87.7%

    0.0322

    [238]

    BiOCl/K+Ca2Nb3O10

    35 mg/35 mL

    TC

    250 W Xe

    150 min/94.5%

    0.01568

    [76]

    CdIn2S4/N-rGO

    50 mg/100 mL

    2,4-DCP

    λ>420 nm

    6 h/70%

    0.0044

    [77]

    SnS2/g-C3N4

    10 mg/50 mL

    RhB

    300 W Xe (λ>400 nm)

    60 min/94.8%

    0.0302

    [123]

    BiVO4/g-C3N4

    10 mg/20 mL

    RhB

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    60 min/100%

    0.0410

    [120]

    Wg-C3N4/g-C3N4

    350 mg/125 mL

    AV-7

    fluorescent

    30 min/96%

    0.0809

    [239]

    TiO2/WS2

    20 mg/100 mL

    RhB

    300 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    90 min/100%

    -

    [79]

    rGO-BWO

    20 mg/100 mL

    TC

    -

    60 min/85.0%

    0.030

    [80]

    SnS2/MoS2

    25 mg/100 mL

    MB

    250 W Hg

    60 min/100%

    0.00937

    [83]

    Ni(OH)2/Bi4Ti3O12

    20 mg/100 mL

    Levofloxacin

    300 W Xe

    80 min/62%

    0.01152

    [89]

    CdS/g-C3N4

    50 mg/50 mL

    RhB

    500 W Xe (λ>420 nm)

    120 min/96.5 %

    0.02414

    [85]

    In2S3/Bi2O2CO3

    30 mg/30 mL

    RhB

    400 W Xe

    60 min/91 %

    0.035

    [156]

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