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SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 62, Issue 8: 1105-1114(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-019-9424-9

Morphology inheritance synthesis of carbon-coated Li3VO4 rods as anode for lithium-ion battery

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  • ReceivedJan 15, 2019
  • AcceptedMar 26, 2019
  • PublishedApr 19, 2019

Abstract

Li3VO4 shows great potential as an intercalation/de-intercalation type anode material for energy-storage devices. Morphology tailoring and surface modification are effective to enhance its lithium storage performance. In this work, we fabricate carbon coated Li3VO4 (C@LVO) rods by a facile morphology inheritance route. The as-prepared C@LVO rods are 400–800 nm in length and 200–400 nm in diameter, and orthorhombic phase with V5+. The unique core-shell rods structure greatly improves the transport ability of electrons and Li+. Such C@LVO submicron-rods as anode materials exhibit excellent rate capability (a reversible capability of 460, 438, 416, 359 and 310 mA h g−1 at 0.2, 1, 2, 5 and 10 C, respectively) and a high stable capacity of 440 and 313 mA h g−1 up to 300 cycles at 0.2 and 5 C, respectively.


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21476019,21676017)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21476019 and 21676017).


Interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Qin P, Zheng YZ and Tao X conceived the idea of the project. Qin P conducted the material synthesis, structural characterizations and electrochemical test. Lv X and Li C helped to discuss partial experimental data. Qin P wrote the paper with support from Zheng YZ. All authors contributed to the general discussion.


Author information

Pengcheng Qin is currently a master student in chemical engineering and technology under the supervision of Prof. Xia Tao at Beijing University of Chemical Technology (BUCT). His research focuses on the anode materials for Li-ion batteries.


Yan-Zhen Zheng is an associate professor of BUCT. Her current research focuses on new energy materials and devices including organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells, lithium batteries, supercapacitors and photo-electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution.


Xia Tao received her PhD degree in physical chemistry from the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2002. She continued her postdoctorate research in Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces of Germany and the University of Alberta of Canada from 2002 to 2004. She, as a professor, is working at BUCT. Her current research focuses on optoelectronic functional materials, solar cells, photocatalysis and environment-related nanomaterials.


Supplement

Supplementary information

Supporting data are available in the online version of the paper.


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  • Figure 1

    Schematic illustration of the formation process of C@LVO rods.

  • Figure 2

    (a, b) XRD patterns of the V2O5, LVO, and C@LVO rods.

  • Figure 3

    (a) FT-IR spectra of the LVO and C@LVO rods. (b) TG curve of the C@LVO rods. (c) V 2p XPS spectra of the C@LVO rods. (d) C 1s XPS of the C@LVO rods.

  • Figure 4

    SEM images of (a) V2O5 and (d) C@LVO rods. TEM images of (b) V2O5 and (e) C@LVO rods. HRTEM images of (c) V2O5 and (f) C@LVO rods.

  • Figure 5

    Electrochemical performance of the C@LVO rods. (a) The first three consecutive CV curves at a scan rate of 0.2 mV s−1. The open circuit potential is ca. 2.2 V. (b) The first five discharge-charge voltage profiles at rate of 0.2 C. (c) Cycle performance and coulombic efficiency at a current rate of 0.2 C. (d) Rate performance at various rates from 0.2 to 10 C. (e) Discharge–charge voltage profiles at different rates from 1 to 10 C. (f) Cycle performance and coulombic efficiency at a current rate of 5 C.

  • Figure 6

    (a) CV curves of the C@LVO rods at different scan rates. (b) Determination of the b-value using the relationship between peak current and scan rate (the right redox peaks). (c) The percentage of capacitance contribution at different scan rates. The capacitive contribution to charge storage of the C@LVO rods at different scan rates of (d) 0.2, (e) 3, and (f) 5 mV s−1.

  • Figure 7

    EIS spectra of the LVO and C@LVO rods. All measured after 30 cycles (the AC amplitude was 5 mV, and the frequency range applied was 0.01 Hz to 100 kHz). Inset: the equivalent circuit used to describe the charge process.

  • Table 1   EIS fitting results for the LVO and C@LVO rods

    Samples

    Re (Ω)

    Rs (Ω)

    Rct (Ω)

    LVO

    2.94

    25.04

    34.35

    C@LVO rods

    3.66

    5.57

    8.72

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