SCIENTIA SINICA Informationis, Volume 48, Issue 8: 978-999(2018) https://doi.org/10.1360/N112017-00024

GPU-based adaptive compacting neighborhood tabu search for hardware/software partitioning

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  • ReceivedFeb 7, 2017
  • AcceptedSep 18, 2017
  • PublishedFeb 7, 2018


Hardware/software (HW/SW) partitioning is an essential step in hardware/software co-design as it determines the functions to be implemented in the hardware and software. HW/SW partitioning problems are NP hard. The increasing complexities of modern embedded systems worsen the problem, thus motivating the search for solutions by heuristics. The tabu search algorithm is an effective method for HW/SW partitioning. However, the process is time consuming. The existing tabu search methods for HW/SW partitioning focus on sequential implementations that involve a trade-off between solution time and solution quality. This trade-off sacrifices the solution quality. This paper presents a GPU-based adaptive compacting neighborhood tabu search for HW/SW partitioning. First, we present an adaptive strategy that enhances the search intensification to improve the solution quality. The massive parallelism of GPU architecture can reduce the solution time of the proposed strategy. Next, to ensure that the algorithm execute efficiently on the GPU, we further propose several implementation strategies such as the representation of task graph on the GPU, the mapping between the GPU thread and candidate, and data layout and memory access optimization. Finally, we realize the proposed method in a computing unified device architecture, namely CUDA, and verify the effectiveness according to the related benchmark with different communication-to-computation ratios and real-time constraint requirements. The results show that the proposed method can yield a better solution quality compared to the existing methods. By comparing with the naive GPU implementation of adaptive compacting neighborhood tabu search, the proposed implementation strategies on the GPU significantly reduced the solution time. In addition, we verified the advantage of the GPU-based method for very large HW/SW partitioning.

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  • Figure 1

    Neighborhood generation

  • Figure 2

    GPU-based framework of proposed algorithm

  • Figure 3

    CSR representation of task graph

  • Figure 4

    Thread-candidate mapping. (a) Sequential and parallel semantic of naive loop; (b) sequential and parallel semantic of proposed loop

  • Figure 5

    GPU compacting neighborhood based on reduce-scan-scan pattern

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Average hardware cost over 30 random instances by different algorithms under different CCR and $R$. (a) CCR $=0.1,~R={\rm~low}$; (b) CCR $=0.1,~R={\rm~high}$; (c) CCR $=1,~R={\rm~low}$; (d) CCR $=1,~R={\rm~high}$; (e) CCR $=10,~R={\rm~low}$; (f) CCR $=10,~R={\rm~high}$

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) Average improvement of GACNTS over HEUR in each case

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) Comparison of excution time between sequential implemtation and GPU implementation.protect łinebreak (a) CCR $=0.1,~R={\rm~low}$; (b) CCR $=0.1,~R={\rm~high}$; (c) CCR $=1,~R={\rm~low}$; (d) CCR $=1,~R={\rm~high}$; (e) CCR $=10,~R={\rm~low}$; (f) CCR $=10,~R={\rm~high}$

  • 1   Table 1Benchmark
    Name $n$ $m$ Size
    crc32 25 34 152
    patricia 21 50 192
    dijkstra 26 71 265
    clustering 150 333 1299
    rc6 329 448 2002
    random1 1000 1000 5000
    random2 1000 2000 8000
    random3 1000 3000 11000
    random4 1500 1500 7500
    random5 1500 3000 12000
    random6 1500 4500 16500
    random7 2000 2000 10000
    random8 2000 4000 16000
    random9 2000 6000 22000

    Algorithm 1 Update of communication cost

    Require:Communication cost of current solution $C(\boldsymbol{x}_{\rm~current})$;

    Output:Communication cost of new solution $C(\boldsymbol{x}_{\rm~new})$;


    while adjacent nodes $x_{\rm~adjacent}$ of $x_i$ exist do

    if $x_i=x_{\rm~adjacent}$ then




    end if

    end while


    Algorithm 2 Tabu evaluation

    Require:Feasible candidates, tabu list, tabu status table;

    Output:Optimal candidate;

    Initialize the optimal candidate as maximal value;

    for all feasible candidates

    if tabu status is true then

    if $H(\boldsymbol{x})~\leq~H(\boldsymbol{x}_{\rm~global~optimal})$ then

    Update the optimal candidate by aspiration criteria;

    end if


    if $H(\boldsymbol{x})~\leq~H(\boldsymbol{x}_{\rm~optimal})$ then


    end if

    end if

    end for

  • 2   Table 2Comparison among improvements of algorithm over alg-new3
    0.1 low 5.2 7.9 9.6 9.6
    0.1 high 20.8 11.3 27.8 27.8
    1 low 9.4 11.5 13.2 13.7
    1 high 30.7 26.6 37.5 37.4
    10 low 3.8 6.2 6.5 6.5
    10 high 10.5 11.1 14.4 14.8
  • 3   Table 3Running time of serial execution and GPU-based execution when the number of nodes is 10000 (min)
    $n$ $m$ ACNTS GACNTS
    10000 10000 102 9
    10000 20000 148 12
    10000 30000 215 16

    Algorithm 3 GPU-based adaptive compacting neighborhood tabu search for hardware/software partitioning

    Require:Initial solution, task graph, node information;

    Output:Optimal solution;

    Initialize the current solution and global optimal;

    Initialize the tabu list at host side;

    Initialize the tabu status at host side;

    Allocate the node cost of task graph space on GPU memory;

    Allocate the neighborhood space on GPU memory;

    Bind the task graph on GPU texture memory;

    Transfer the node cost of task graph to GPU memory;

    while stop criterion isn't satisfied do

    Copy the current solution to GPU memory;

    Compute the costs of candidates in the neighborhood at GPU side;

    Compating neighborhood at GPU side;

    if the number of feasible solutions is 0 then

    Reinitialize the current solution;

    goto Compute the costs of candidates in the neighborhood at GPU side;

    end if

    Launch tabu evaluations kernel;

    Transfer back the optimal candidate to the host side;

    if all feasible solutions are tabu then

    Randomly choose a feasible solution;

    Update the optimal candidate;

    end if

    Update the tabu list at the host side;

    Update the tabu status table at the host side;

    Replace the current solution with the optimal candidate solution at the host side;

    if $H(\boldsymbol{x}_{\rm~current})~\leq~H(\boldsymbol{x}_{\rm~global})$ then

    Update the global solution;

    Clear ${\rm~count}_{\rm~no~improvement}$;


    Increase ${\rm~count}_{\rm~no~improvement}$ by 1;

    end if

    end while

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