SCIENTIA SINICA Informationis, Volume 48, Issue 8: 1065-1075(2018) https://doi.org/10.1360/N112017-00129

Holding-time-aware energy-efficient routing algorithm in elastic optical networks

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  • ReceivedJun 9, 2017
  • AcceptedDec 27, 2017
  • PublishedFeb 12, 2018


To address spectrum fragmentation and energy consumption in elastic optical networks, a holding-time-aware energy-efficient routing algorithm is proposed herein. In the routing phase, by considering the effect of holding-time on energy consumption, we select the path with minimal cost to improve the energy efficiency. In the phase of spectrum allocation, according to the departure time of requests, the available spectrum blocks with a minor average departure time difference between a request and its adjacent requests are selected to pre-allocate to the request. Subsequently, for minimizing spectrum fragmentation, we calculate the coherence degree of pre-allocation spectrum blocks, and select the spectral block with maximal spectrum coherence degree to transmit the request. Our simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the blocking probability and improve the energy efficiency under a dynamic network scene in elastic optical networks.

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  • Figure 1

    Examples of spectrum utilization, (a) without holding times information; (b) with holding times information

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Spectrum coherence degree calculation. (a) Physical topology; (b) spectrum allocation

  • Figure 3

    Network topologies for verifying algorithms' performance. (a) NSFNET; (b) USNET

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Comparison of bandwidth blocking rates in different network topologies. (a) NSFNET;protect łinebreak (b) USNET

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Comparison of bandwidth utilization rates in different network topologies. (a) NSFNET;protect łinebreak (b) USNET

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Comparison of energy efficiency in different network topologies. (a) NSFNET; (b) USNET

  • Table 1   Services routing information
    Serve Request FSs Route paths
    $R1$ 2 FSs L1, L2
    $R2$ 2 FSs L1, L2, L3
    $R3$ 1 FSs L2, L3
    $R4$ 2 FSs L3
    $R5$ 1 FSs L1, L2
  • Table 2   Transmission rate and power consumption of a transponder for different modulation formats
    Modulation format Modulation level Transmission rate (Gb/s) Power consumption (W)
    BPSK 1 12.5 112.374
    QPSK 2 25 133.416
    8QAM 3 37.5 154.457
    16QAM 4 50 175.498

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