SCIENTIA SINICA Informationis, Volume 49, Issue 7: 868-885(2019) https://doi.org/10.1360/N112018-00030

WLAN indoor target intrusion detection algorithm based on adaptive-depth ray tree

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  • ReceivedFeb 7, 2018
  • AcceptedMay 18, 2018
  • PublishedMay 10, 2019


With the wide deployment of wireless local area network (WLAN) and general support of WLAN protocol by various intelligent terminals, the intrusion detection with respect to the indoor target can be realized by using the existing WLAN infrastructure. To achieve this goal, the adaptive-depth ray tree based quasi 3D ray-tracing model is constructed to model the received signal strength (RSS) propagation property under the indoor silence and intrusion scenarios. Then, the RSS mean, variance, maximum, minimum, range, and median are allied to construct the training database for the probabilistic neural network (PNN). Finally, after the training, the PNN is utilized to perform the multi-classification decision with respect to the newly-collected RSS data, and consequently achieve the indoor target intrusion detection and area localization. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is featured with high intrusion detection rate as well as low database construction cost.

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  • Table 1   The calculation process of each layer of PNN neurons
    Functional layer Number of neurons Calculation process
    Input layer Signal feature dimension $d$ (1) Compute ${z_k}~=~{\boldsymbol~x}_k^{\rm{T}}{\boldsymbol~x}~(k~=~1,{\rm{~}}~\ldots~,~n)$, in which ${\boldsymbol~x}~=~({{{x_1}}~/~{\sqrt~{\sum\nolimits_{j~=~1}^d~{x_j^2}~}~}},~\ldots~,$ ${{{x_d}}~/~{\sqrt~{\sum\nolimits_{j~=~1}^d~{x_j^2}~}~}})$ and ${{\boldsymbol~x}_k}~=~({{{x_{k1}}}~/~{\sqrt~{\sum\nolimits_{j~=~1}^d~{x_{kj}^2}~}~}},{\rm{~}}~\ldots~,{\rm{~}}{{{x_d}}~/~{\sqrt~{\sum\nolimits_{j~=~1}^d~{x_{kj}^2}~}~}})$ are normalization vectors of test sample and $k$-th training sample, respectively, $n$ is the size of training samples. (2) Assign the connection weights $\omega_{jk}$ of the $j$-th neuron in the input layer and the $k$-th neuron in the model layer, and the assignment process is described in Algorithm 3.
    Model layer $n$ (1) Compute kernel density function $\varphi~({z_k})~=~\exp~(\frac{{{z_k}~-~1}}{{{\delta~^2}}})$, in which $\delta$ is the smoothing factor. (2) Assign the connection weights ${a_{ki}}~(i~=~1,{\rm{~}}~\ldots~,{\rm{~}}c)$ of the $k$-th neuron in the model layer and the $i$-th neuron in the summation layer, in which $c$ is the number of states. If ${\boldsymbol~x}_k$ belongs to $i$-th state, then $a_{ki}=1$, otherwise $a_{ki}=0$, as described in Algorithm 3.
    Summation layer $c$ Compute the conditional probability of ${\boldsymbol~x}$ belonging to the $i$-th state ${g_i}({\boldsymbol{x)}}~=~\frac{{{P_i}}}{{{N_i}}}\sum\nolimits_{k~\in~\{~1,{\rm{~}}~\ldots~,{\rm{~}}n\}~~\cup~{a_{ki}}~=~1}~{\varphi~({z_k})}$, in which $P_i$ is the priori probability of the $i$-th state and, $N_i$ is the number of training samples that belong to the $i$-th state.
    Output layer $1$ Compute$\max~\{~{g_i}({\boldsymbol~x}),{\rm{~}}i~\in~\{~1,{\rm{~}}~\ldots~,{\rm{~}}c\}~\}$, in which the $i$ that corresponds to the maximum value of $g_i({\boldsymbol~x})$ is the output state of PNN.
  • Table 2   Average time cost for ray modeling between each pair of AP and MP
    Performance index Ref. [18] Ref. [12] The proposed method
    Time overhead (s) 6.03 7.25 3.41
  • Table 3   Performance comparison of different intrusion detection methods
    Performance index MA MV Radio tomographic imaging Neural network The proposed method
    Missed detection probability (%) 14.46 14.26 7.08 5.23 3.42
    False detection probability (%) 13.85 10.40 12.47 9.01 7.96
    Successful detection probability (%) 95.8 94.5 97.40
    Average time overhead 2.35 2.46 9.77 6.57 6.62
    for single detection (s)

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